Louis was officially diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1835. As the tuberculosis progressed, his health continued to deteriorate. In 1844, he was forced to retire to Coupvray for three years to regain his strength. When he returned to the Insitute in 1847 he reduced his class size because it was difficult for students to hear his weakened voice. Although ill health forced him to retire in 1850, Dufau agreed to keep him on at the Institute in exchange for giving piano lessons from time to time as his health allowed.
Louis Braille died on January 6th, 1852, two days after his 43rd birthday. His body was taken to Coupvray and buried in the local cemetery. Shortly before his death he dictated his will, in which he forgave all debts owed to him and gave monies to blindness and Catholic organizations.