Abstract: Within the framework of the comprehensive low vision care process, the overall goals of education and rehabilitation specialists are to maximize the specific skills, self-esteem, and quality of life of individuals with low vision. These specialists are involved in evaluating functional vision, teaching methods to compensate for impaired vision, and addressing psychosocial concerns to meet the needs of individuals in their homes, workplaces, schools, and communities.
Orientation and Mobility
W.R. Wiener, G. Lawson, K. Naghshineh, J. Brown, A. Bischoff, A. Toth
Abstract: Orientation and mobility O&M specialists are concerned with the ability of a person who is visually impaired to use hearing as well as vision in independent travel. Yet, there is no published research on the auditory requirements for making effective street crossings by individuals who are visually impaired or by individuals who are both visually and hearing impaired. Thus, this article presents the frequency and intensity measurements for traffic sounds under different conditions. It then compares these measurements to audiograms to illustrate how, given certain limitations and cautions, O&M specialists can estimate a traveler's ability to make safe traffic crossmgs.
R.G. Golledge, J.R. Marston, C.M. Costanzo
Abstract: This article reports on a survey of the use of buses in Santa Barbara, California, by 55 persons who are visually impaired (including those who are blind and those who have low vision). Findings on users' frustrations, potential use of technological aids for travel, and perceptions of and attitudes toward the characteristics of bus services are presented. In addition, differences in the responses of those to whom household cars were and were not available are analyzed, and suggestions for dealing with the participants' major concerns are provided.
Americans with Disabilities Act
P.D. Rumrill, Jr., C.M. Scheff
Abstract: Unemployment and underemployment have plagued people who are visually impaired (including those who are blind and those who have low vision) since long before the Randolph-Sheppard Act of 1936. Five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was implemented in 1992, persons who are visually impaired still have poor access to and are discriminated against in the labor market. This article examines the barriers to competitive employment for persons with visual impairments and presents an ADA-compatible strategy to help remove these barriers.
Mothers and Children
S.M. Baird, P. Mayfield, P. Baker
Abstract: In this study, seven mothers of infants with visual and other impairments identified behaviors that they considered meaningful and interpreted these behaviors. The mothers identified 14 of 22 subcategories of behaviors that a previous study of mothers with sighted infants had identified. Not only was the range of behaviors they interpreted limited, but over 65 percent of their interpretations fell into only two of the 16 subcategories previously identified (attention preference and intentional behavior: desire). The implications for early intervention and future research are discussed.
Cortical Visual Impairment
C. Farrenkopf, D. McGregor, S.L. Nes, A.J. Koenig
Abstract: The effectiveness of two treatment strategies--verbal prompts and a physical prompt--on the the independent drinking skills of a 17-year-old girl with cortical visual impairment was investigated using a single-subject alternating treatments design in two settings. Ten natural drinking opportunities were observed in 43 sessions in the student's school and home. It was found that the physical prompt was highly effective in promoting the target behavior, whereas verbal prompts were less effective. Independent drinking behaviors appeared to have been maintained in both settings.
S.D. Trent, M.B. Truan
Abstract: All 30 adolescent braille readers at the Tennessee School for the Blind were interviewed using a questionnaire developed by the authors, and their reading rates, accuracy, and comprehension were determined via the Gilmore Oral Reading Test. The questionnaire tapped information on onset of blindness, early reading experiences, service delivery systems, cause of blindness, and acceptance and use of braille. The most important factor related to braille reading speed was age of onset of blindness. No direct relationships were found between reading speed and comprehension or reading speed and reading for pleasure in braille.
IN THIS ISSUE
C.L. Earl, J.D. Leventhal
M.M. Uslan, J.C. Su
J.D. Leventhal, C.L. Earl
Reviewed by D. Kent
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