Assistive Technology for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

Ike Presley and Frances Mary D'Andrea

Index

Note: Page numbers in the Index refer to the print edition. The Index entries can be used as search terms for the online version.


  • abacus, 60–61

  • academic evaluations, 184

  • Accessibility Wizard and display preferences, 245

    • accessing display settings using, 310–11

    • student display preferences, assessing, 312

  • accessible formats, producing materials in, 11

  • accessible media producers (AMPs), 146

  • accessible PDA. See personal digital assistants (PDAs)

  • accessing electronic information

    • in assistive technology assessment process

      • auditory access, 248–252

      • computer access, input devices, 252–57

      • computer access, output devices, 240–52

      • electronic calculators, 260–62

      • tactile access, 248

      • talking dictionaries, 262–63

      • using PDAs, 257–60

      • visual access, 246–248

    • recommendations report and

      • accessible PDAs and laptop computers, 351–57

      • computer access, recommendations report and, 343–51

      • electronic information, other types of, 351–58

      • other electronic tools, 357

      • scanning systems, specialized, 334, 351

    • technologies for

      • auditory access of electronic information, 104–19

      • electronic access tools, advantages of, 80–81

      • tactile access of electronic information, 100–104

      • visual access of electronic information, 81–100

  • accessing print information

    • in assistive technology assessment process

      • auditory access, 233–36

      • information presented at a distance, accessing, 237, 239–40

      • reading rates, 236–37

      • tactile access and braille, 229–32

      • visual access, 207–8

    • presented at a distance, technologies for

      • in assistive technology assessment process, 237, 239–40

      • computer slideshow projection systems, 76

      • digital video cameras, 340, 341–43

      • electronic whiteboards, 74–75

      • information in student's preferred medium, 339

      • optical devices, 339–40

      • overhead projectors, 75–76

      • sample form, 239

      • video display systems, 76–77

    • recommendations report and

      • auditory access to: print information, 337–39

      • information presented at a distance, accessing, 339–43

      • tactile access of print information, 335–37

      • visual access of print information, 328–35

    • technologies for

      • auditory, 61–72

      • learning and literacy, 8–10

      • presented at a distance, 72–77

      • tactile, 56–61

      • visual, 25–56

  • AccessWorld: Guide to Assistive Technology Products (AFB), 36, 400

  • AccessWorld: Technology and People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired (AFB), 80, 400

  • acetate overlays, 27

  • American Council of the Blind (ACB), 194, 401

  • American Foundation for the Blind (AFB), 400

    • AccessWorld: Guide to Assistive Technology Products, 36, 400

    • AccessWorld: Technology and People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, 80, 400

    • Career Connect program, 400

    • Directory of Services for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons in the United States and Canada, 148, 178

  • American Printing House for the Blind (APH)

    • as braille textbook producer, 153–54

    • cassette tape recorders/players available from, 166

    • large-print textbooks available from, 148

    • NIMAC housed at, 146

    • tactile graphics available from, 160–61

    • Tactile Graphics Kit available from, 163

    • tactile math tools available from, 61

  • anecdotal records, 395

  • Assessment Kit (Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired), 233

  • assessment environment, 196

  • assistive technology assessment process

    • background information, gathering

      • clinical low vision examination, 181

      • form, sample of, 182–83

      • functional low vision assessment, 184

      • learning media assessment, 181

      • medical, psychological, and academic evaluations, 184

      • medical eye examination, 181

      • teacher assessment and observation, 184–85

    • checklist, sample of, 275–300

    • completing

      • major steps for, 174–75

      • materials, gathering, 191–92, 193–95, 196

      • testing environment, 192, 195, 196

    • implementing recommendations

      • IEP goals, writing, 385–89

      • teaching assistive technology, considerations for, 389–96

      • technology difficulties, troubleshooting, 396–98

      • training for teachers, 398–406

    • performing

      • accessing print, 203–40

      • accessing electronic information, 240–63

      • additional information, 274

      • assessment, key questions in, 199

      • communicating through writing, 263–73

      • follow-up and next steps, 274

      • form and process, an overview, 199–202

      • students with additional disabilities, considerations for, 202–3

    • preparing for

      • background information, gathering, 179–85

      • considerations checklist, 185–91

      • recommendations, writing, 195

  • Assistive Technology Assessment Report and Recommendations Form, 373–83

  • assistive technology assessments

    • appropriate tools, determining, 12–14

    • clinical low vision evaluation, 5

    • critical role of, 4–5

    • functional vision assessment, 5–6

    • Individualized Education Program team and, 6

    • law, complying with, 14, 408–15

    • learning media assessment, 6

    • not receiving, repercussions of, 13–14

    • reasons for performing, 12

    • resources, ensuring best use of, 14–15

  • assistive technology demonstration and training centers, 193–94

  • assistive technology device, IDEA's definition of, 18

  • Assistive Technology Industry Association Conference (ATIA), 401, 402

  • Assistive Technology Recommendations Form, 316, 366–72

  • assistive technology resources, learning about, 400–401

    • conferences, 400–402

    • online and in print, 400

  • assistive technology services

    • common errors, 177

    • quality indicators for, 176–77

  • assistive technology skills, monitoring students', 395

  • Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER), 401

  • audio-assisted reading skills, developing, 98

  • audio description, 76–77, 343

  • Audio Graphing Calculator, 118

  • audio recordings, 63–64, 166–68

    • IEP team recommendations for use of, 338

  • auditory access

    • in assistive technology assessment process

      • to electronic information, 240–52

      • to print information, 233–37

    • audio recording, 63–64

    • to computers, recommendations report and, 348

    • to electronic information

      • accessible PDAs, 112–13

      • computers and related hardware and software, 104–12

      • digital voice recorders, 118–19

      • e-text and e-text readers, 113–14

      • talking calculators, 115, 117–18

      • talking dictionaries, 114–15, 116

    • to print information

      • audio recording, 63–64

      • digital audio formats, 65–69

      • readers, 62–63

      • reading machines, 69–72

      • other auditory tools, 72

      • recommendations report and, 337–39

  • auditory technologies

    • for producing materials in alternate formats

      • editing, 168

      • playback equipment, 169

      • production and duplication, 169

      • recording, 166–68

    • for producing written communication

      • accessible computers with word-processing software, 143

      • accessible PDAs, 143–44

  • automatic teller machines (ATMs), 99

  • batch scanning, 71

  • BookShare.org, 165

  • book stand, 332, 336

  • braille

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 229–32

    • hard-copy or paper, 56

    • IEP team recommendations for use of, 335

    • producers of, 153–54

    • simulated (sim), 156, 158

    • spelling of words and terms, 57

    • structure and format of printed information, 57

    • tactile access, recommendations report and, 335–36

    • tools for producing

      • braille embossers, 157–58, 364–65

      • braille translation software, 155–57

      • interlining, 158–59

      • manual, mechanical, and electronic braille production tools, 155

    • translation software, 363

    • volunteers, 154

    • See also refreshable braille displays

  • Braille, Louis, 133

  • Braille Authority of North America (BANA), 156

  • braille reading rate in assistive technology assessment process, 231–32

  • braillewriters

    • electronic

      • Mountbatten Brailler, 138–41

      • recommendations report and, 362

      • in assistive technology assessment process, 273

      • as writing tool using tactile access, 269

    • manual

      • in assistive technology assessment process, 269

      • additional options for special needs, 135

      • disadvantages of, 135

      • Jot a Dot, 134–35

      • making corrections and editing on, 136

      • Next Generation Perkins/APH, 134, 136

      • Perkins Brailler, 134

      • recommendations report and, 361–62

  • Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills—Revised, 233

  • calculators, electronic/talking, 99–100

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 260–62

    • four-function, 117

    • graphing, 117–18

    • importance, 115

    • recommendations report and, 357–58

    • sample form, 261

    • scientific, 117

  • California School for the Blind, 395

  • California State University at Northridge (CSUN), 401–2

  • capsule paper and fuser, 59, 163

  • Career Connect program (AFB), 400

  • cassette tape players, adapted

    • tactile controls, 64

    • tone indexing, 64

    • variable pitch control, 64, 65

    • variable speed control, 64

  • cassette tape recorders/players, 166

  • cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors, 83, 244, 245, 345

  • CDs (compact disks), 66, 233, 338

  • clinical low vision examination/evaluation, 5, 181

  • closed-circuit television systems (CCTVs). See video magnification systems

  • Closing the Gap, 400, 401

  • collage, 59, 161–62

  • color camera, 33

  • communicating through writing. See also writing tools

    • in assistive technology assessment process

      • electronic tools for producing, 271–73

      • nonelectronic tools for producing, 264–71

    • recommendations report and

      • accessible computer systems, 361

      • accessible PDAs, 362

      • manually, 359–60

      • math, 360

      • worksheets, completing, 360–61

      • writing tools for braille readers, recommendations report and, 361–62

      • technologies for producing, 11

      • auditory, 142–44

      • tactile, 132–42

      • visual, 212–32

  • computer access

    • input devices, 252–57, 348–51

    • output devices, 240–52, 344–48

  • computer-assisted tactile graphics, 59

    • creating the image, 163–64

    • producing tactile graphic, 164–65

  • computer compatibility, 35

  • computers, 123–32

    • drawing programs, 129, 130

    • electronic files, naming and organizing, 131

    • keyboard commands and shortcuts quick reference, 111–12

    • keyboarding skills, teaching, 127–29

    • keyboard input, 252–55

    • Macintosh, accessibility on, 88–89

    • with refreshable or electronic display braille, 102

    • software options, 85

    • See also hardware; software

  • computer slideshow projection systems, 76

  • conferences, 400–402

  • considerations checklist, assistive technology, 185–91

  • continuum of assistive technology, 320–21

  • convergence, 68–69

  • core curriculum/expanded core curriculum, 185

  • Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), 401

  • Cranmer abacus, 60–61

  • Cubarithm, 61

  • cursor-enlarging software, 87, 90, 91

  • DAISY (Digital Accessible Information SYstem), 66

  • desktop video magnifiers

    • assessing student's ability to use, 224

    • computer-compatible models, 43

    • described, 36

    • disadvantages of, 43–44

    • features, 43

    • focus, 307

    • monitors, placement of, 36, 38, 40, 43

    • procedure for completing assessment of, 306–9

    • setting up a workstation for, 41–42

  • diagnostic teaching methods, 385

  • dictionaries, electronic/talking, 100, 114–15, 116

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 262–63

    • recommendations report and, 358

  • digital audio formats

    • convergence, 68–69

    • Digital Talking Books, 64, 66–67

    • other electronic formats, 67–68

  • digital imaging systems, 49–52, 225

  • Digital Talking Books (DTBs), 64, 66–67

  • digital video cameras, 74, 340

    • using in classroom, issues in, 342

  • digital voice recorders, 118–19

  • Directory of Services for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons in the United States and Canada (AFB), 148, 178

  • dot matrix printer, 158

  • drawing programs, 129, 130

  • DVD technology, 76, 399

  • early intervention, 390–92

  • e-book readers, 99

  • education curriculum, knowing, 392

  • electrical outlets, access to, 196

  • electronic access tools, advantages of

    • efficiency, 81

    • flexibility, 81

    • portability, 80–81

  • electronic books (e-books), 68–69

    • e-book readers, 99

  • electronic files, naming and organizing, 131

  • electronic formats, 67–68

  • electronic pocket magnifiers, 48–49, 225

  • electronic text, accessing, 8–10

  • electronic whiteboards, 74–75, 342, 343

  • embossers, 157–58, 364–65

  • enlarged print produced on photocopier, 147–48, 207–8

  • ergonomic furniture, 196

  • e-text and e-text readers, 113–14

  • false color, 33

  • fatigue, visual and physical, 226, 228–29

  • field of view, 31

  • flash drive, 67, 81, 89, 168, 233

  • flex-arm camera models, 44–46, 224

  • flexible monitor stand, 244–45

  • focus options, 34

  • fonts, 26

    • Arial font in various point sizes, 303–4

    • determining size that is comfortable for student, 210, 211

    • different fonts, samples of, 305

    • sample, 301–2

    • type font, determining student's preferred, 212

  • freeware, 91

  • freeze-frame feature, 34

  • functional low vision assessment, 5–6, 184

  • fuser, 163

  • General Education Technology Plan, 318–20

    • technology as instruction tool, 319

    • technology as productivity tool, 319–20

  • global positioning system (GPS), 102

  • goals

    • determining and updating, 184, 316, 317

    • learning, for students and professionals, 15–16

    • training, 405

    • writing, 385–89, 393

  • graphical user interface (GUI), 109–10

  • handwritten materials in assistive technology assessment process, 214, 219, 220–23

  • hardware

    • borrowing, 193–94

    • problems, troubleshooting, 397–98

    • recommendations report and, 363–65

    • screen-enlarging, 82–85, 244–45

    • screen magnifiers, 244

    • synthesizers, 250

  • head-mounted display video magnifiers, 47–48, 225

  • imaging software, 52–54, 126, 129

  • Individualized Education Program (IEP)

    • defined, 173–74

    • educational objectives, accomplishing, 319, 321, 322, 324

    • goals, determining and updating, 184, 316, 317

    • goals, writing, 385–89, 393

    • teacher skills, ensuring, 399

    • team

      • assessment findings used by, 6

      • assessment team coordinator, naming, 178–79

      • assistive technology services and, quality indicators for, 176–77

      • background information/data assembled and reviewed by, 199

      • final assessment report submitted to, 325, 326, 327

      • follow-up report provided to, 331–32

      • IDEA provisions for, 14

      • knowledge requirements for, 180

      • learning media assessment and, 6

      • multidisciplinary, 179

      • proactive approach taken by, 390–92

      • QIAT Consortium principles and, 175

      • reevaluating student's assistive technology needs, 394–96

      • review date, setting, 388–89

      • selecting, 175, 178–79, 199

      • troubleshooting plan for responding to technology problems, 385

    • team recommendations

      • to access other types of electronic information, 351

      • audio recordings of print information, use of, 338

      • braille, use of, 335

      • implementation of, 328

      • reviewing, 195

      • for students with multiple disabilities, 179

      • technology tools, use of, 384

      • video camera, use of, 341–42

  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    • 1997 amendments to, 14

    • assistive technology device defined by, 18

    • assistive technology services and, quality indicators for, 176–77

    • materials in accessible formats, provisions for, 145, 153

  • information in student's preferred medium, 339

  • ink printers, 364–65

  • input devices for computer access

    • keyboards, 252–55, 349–50

    • pointing devices, 255–57, 350–51

  • instructional materials centers (IMCs), 154

  • instructional resource centers (IRCs), 154

  • instructional strategies, 403–4

  • interlining, 158–59

  • Johns Basic Reading Inventory, 204, 218, 232

  • Jot a Dot Brailler, 134–35

  • Journal of Special Education Technology, 401

  • keyboarding skills, teaching

    • labeling keys, 128

    • mainstream keyboarding programs, 127

    • prekeyboarding skills, 128–29

  • keyboards

    • braille, 102, 258

    • commands and shortcuts quick reference, 111–12

    • input, 252–55

    • on PDAs, 102, 113, 123, 142

    • QWERTY, 102, 156, 258

  • Kurzweil, Ray, 69

  • Kurzweil 1000 and 3000, 236

  • laptop and notebook computers, 351–52

    • auditory access, 355, 357

    • as electronic writing tool, 132

    • tactile access, 355

    • video magnifiers, compatible, 34–35

    • visual access, 353–54, 355

  • large print

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 208–12

    • commercially produced, 148–49

    • computer-based production of, 149–53

    • defined, 26

    • enlarged print produced on photocopier, 147–48, 207–8

  • law, complying with, 14, 408–15

  • learning and literacy, technologies for

    • accessing print and electronic text, 8–10

    • essential, for visually impaired students, 5–6

    • learning goal for students and professionals, 15–16

    • materials in accessible formats, producing, 11

    • using to enhance literacy, 7–11

    • visual impairment, impact of, 4

    • written communication, producing, 11

    • See also assistive technology assessment process

  • learning goal for students and professionals, 15–16

  • learning media assessment, 6, 181

  • lighting

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 196, 215

    • for nonoptical devices, 27

    • for optical devices, 28, 31–32

  • line features, 34

  • liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, 34, 83, 244, 245, 345

  • literacy. See learning and literacy, technologies for

  • Local Area Network (LAN), 343

  • local education agency (LEA), 146, 402

  • Macintosh computers, accessibility on, 88–89

  • cursor, adjusting, 90

  • running Windows on, 89

  • visual display, adjusting, 87

  • VoiceOver, 88–89

  • Zoom, 88

  • magnifiers. See video magnification systems

  • materials in alternate formats, technologies for producing

    • auditory, 165–69

    • tactile, 153–65

    • visual, 147–53

  • math materials in braille, production of, 156

  • math software and spreadsheets, 130, 132

  • math tools, tactile, 60–61

    • abacus, 60–61

    • Cubarithm, 61

    • raised-line measuring tools, 61

  • medical evaluations, 184

  • medical eye examination, 181

  • memory stick, 81, 233

  • memory storage devices, portable, 233

  • Microsoft Magnifier, 92, 245, 247

    • student's ability to use, assessing, 313

  • Microsoft Narrator, 107

  • Microsoft Windows operating system, 85

    • Accessibility Wizard and display preferences, 86–87, 245

    • Imaging program, 226

    • running on Macintosh computers, 89

    • word-processing documents, setting up, 124

  • monitors

    • adjustable monitor stands, 345–46

    • aspect ratio, 83

    • CRT, 83, 244, 245, 345

    • flexible stand, 244–45

    • large, 244, 345

    • LCD, 34, 83, 244, 245, 345

    • operating system accessibility options, 346

    • recommendations report and, 344–47

    • screen-magnifying lenses, 346

    • in video display systems, 76

    • in video magnifiers, 34

    • See also screen-enlarging hardware; screen magnification software

  • Mountbatten braillewriters, 138–41

  • MP3 players/files, 67, 80, 169, 233

  • multiple disabilities, recommendations for students with, 179

  • multisensory access, 71–72

  • National Agenda for Children and Youth with Visual Impairments, 146

  • National Federation of the Blind (NFB), 194, 401

  • National Instructional Materials Accessibility Center (NIMAC), 146, 414–15

  • National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS), 23, 146, 153, 416

  • National Library Service (NLS), 63, 166

    • cassette tape recorders/players available through, 165

    • training for braille volunteers, 154

    • transition from tape to Digital Talking Books, 67

  • Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation, 156

  • Next Generation Perkins/APH Brailler, 134, 136

  • nonelectronic tools for producing written communication

    • using tactile access, 268

    • using visual access, 264–68

  • nonoptical devices, 25–27

    • acetate overlays, 27

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 212–15

    • defined, 26

    • large print, 26

    • lighting, 27, 28

    • reading stands, 27

  • omnidirectional microphones, 167

  • OpenBook, 236

  • operational knowledge, 402–3

  • operator errors, troubleshooting, 398

  • optical character recognition (OCR) software, 52, 54–56

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 226

    • vs. braille translation software, 156

    • computer-based large-print production, 149, 150, 151

    • digital imaging systems, 51–52

    • disadvantages of, 54

    • vs. imaging software, 53

    • laptop compatibility, 35

    • in producing materials in alternate formats, 149–51

    • specialized scanning systems and, 52–56

    • stand-alone electronic readers, 69, 70

  • optical devices, 27–32

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 216–19

    • field of view, 31

    • lighting, 31–32

    • magnifiers, 29, 340

    • principles of, 30–32

    • telescopes, 29–30, 339, 341

    • training, 32

  • output devices for computer access

    • auditory, 248, 348

    • tactile, 248, 347–48

    • visual, 240–48, 344–47

  • overhead projectors, 75–76

  • panning, 96, 98

  • Perkins Braillers, 134

  • personal digital assistants (PDAs), 102–3, 351–53

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 257–60

    • vs. accessible laptops, 354

    • assessing electronic information using, 257–60

    • auditory access, 112–13, 355, 357

    • braillewriters, 142

    • e-text files transferred to, 113

    • keyboard, 113, 123, 142

    • mainstream, 112–13

    • as portable writing tool, 123

    • rationales for accessible, 356

    • with refreshable or electronic display braille, 102–3

    • spell-checking features, 144

    • tactile access, 143–44, 355

    • talking calculators on, 117

    • visual access, 353–54, 355

  • photocopying machine, materials enlarged on, 147–48, 207–8

  • playback equipment, 169

  • pocket PCs, 102–3

  • pointing device input, 255–57

  • point sizes

    • Arial font in various point sizes, 303–4

    • determining size that is comfortable for student, 210, 211

    • different fonts, samples of, 305

    • sample, 301–2

    • type font, determining student's preferred, 212

  • portable devices

    • notetakers, 102–3

    • PDAs, 123

    • video magnifier with handheld camera, 46–47, 225

    • word processors, 122–23

  • PowerPoint, 76

  • progress monitoring, 393–94

  • psychological evaluations, 184

  • public domain software, 91

  • QIAT Consortium (Quality Indicators for Assistive Technology Services), 175

  • Quick-Draw Paper, 161

  • QWERTY keyboard, 102, 156

  • raised-line measuring tools, 61

  • readers, 62–63, 233–36

  • reading machines

    • computer-based reading machines, 71

    • multisensory access, 71–72

    • stand-alone electronic reading machines, 69–70

  • reading rates in assistive technology assessment process, 236–37

    • braille reading rate, 231

  • reading stands, 27, 216, 332, 336

  • recommendations report, 316–65

    • accessing electronic information, 343–58

    • accessing print information, 328–43

    • administrators' concerns, 323–24

    • communicating through writing, 358–62

    • compiling the report, 326–28

    • considerations, general, 317–25

    • General Education Technology Plan, 318–20

    • hardware and software, additional, 363–65

    • immediate and future needs, 321–22

    • parents' concerns, 322

    • sample technology plan, 318

    • skills training, 324–25

    • technology continuum, 320–21

    • writing, 325–26

    • See also Individualized Education Program (IEP)

  • recording, 166–68

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 233–36

    • cassette tape recorders/players, 166

    • microphones for, 167

  • Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic (RFB&D), 63, 165

  • reevaluation, periodic

    • educational environment, change in, 396

    • information the student must access, change in, 395–96

    • new technology, availability of, 396

    • vision or other medical condition, change in, 394–95

  • refreshable braille displays

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 232

    • computers with, 101–2

    • PDAs with, 102–3

  • regular print, in assistive technology assessment process, 204–6

  • reverse polarity, 33

  • scanning and OCR systems, 52–56

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 226, 271–72

    • imaging software, 52–54

    • in producing materials in alternate formats, 149–52

    • specialized scanning systems, 54–56, 334, 351

    • See also optical character recognition (OCR) software

  • science materials in braille, production of, 156

  • screen board, 160

  • screen-enlarging hardware

    • adjustable monitor arms, 83–85

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 244–45

    • large monitors, 82–83

    • screen-magnifying lenses, 83

  • screen magnification software

    • adjusting magnification, 93–94

    • appearance and presentation, controlling, 96, 99

    • assessment, completing, 314–15

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 245–48

    • basic features of, 92

    • high-end, 93

    • magnified images, becoming oriented to, 94–95

    • navigating with screen magnifiers, 95–96

    • packages, 92–93

    • recommendations report and, 346–47

    • using to improve reading, 97–98

  • screen-magnifying lenses, 83

  • screen-reading software (screen reader)

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 249, 252

    • controlling speech, 108

    • graphical user interface, navigating, 109–10

    • Internet access, 110, 112

    • keyboard commands and shortcuts quick reference, 111–12

    • navigation, 108–9, 252

    • profanity, 109

    • pronunciation, 108

  • scrolling, 96, 98

  • SD (secure digital) card, 81, 233

  • self-portrait feature, 33

  • self-voicing or "talking" devices, 72

  • self-voicing software, 106–7

  • Sewell Raised Line Drawing Kit, 160

  • shareware, 91

  • show-and-tell activities, 388

  • signature writing, 269, 271

  • simulated (sim) braille, 156, 158

  • skills training, 324–25

    • students' attitudes, 324–25

  • slate and stylus, 133–34, 269, 361–62

  • software

    • braille translation, 155–57, 363

    • computer-based word-processing, 73

    • copyright issues and accessibility software, 364

    • cursor-enlarging software, 87, 90, 91

    • demonstration, 193

    • Digital Talking Book, 66–67

    • freeware, shareware, and public domain software, 91

    • imaging, 52–54, 126, 129

    • materials in alternate formats, producing, 363, 364–65

    • math, and spreadsheets, 130, 132

    • OCR, 53, 54

    • operating system accessibility features, 85–87

    • options, output devices and

      • Accessibility Wizard and display preferences, 245

      • Microsoft Magnifier, 245, 247

      • Windows display appearance checklist, 246–47

    • problems, troubleshooting, 397–98

    • screen-reading, 107–10, 112, 252

    • self-voicing, 106–7

    • supporting, 363

    • synthesizers, 250

    • talking word processors, 105

    • text readers, 106

    • visual access, output devices and, 245

    • voice recognition, 350

    • word-processing, 123–26

    • See also screen magnification software; screen-reading software (screen reader)

  • Special Education Technology-British Columbia (SET-BC), 395

  • specialized scanning systems. See scanning and OCR systems

  • speech synthesizers, 104–5. See also synthetic speech

  • spreadsheets and math software, 130, 132

  • stand-alone devices

    • defined, 6

    • electronic reading machines, 69–70

  • state standards and testing, 392–93

  • student's preferred medium, information in, 339

  • students with additional disabilities, considerations for, 202–3

  • stylus, 133–34, 269, 361–62

  • Swail Dot Inverter, 160

  • synthesized speech, 249–50, 252. See also speech synthesizers

  • tactile access

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 229–32, 248

    • to computers, recommendations report and, 347–48

    • to electronic information, 100–104

    • to output devices, 248

    • to print information, 56–61, 335–37

      • braille, 56–57

      • other tactile tools, 59–60

      • tactile graphics, 57–59

      • tactile math tools, 60–61

    • See also braille; braillewriters; slate and stylus; tactile graphics

  • tactile graphics

    • area textures, 162

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 229–31

    • capsule paper and fuser, 163

    • collage, 161–62

    • computer-assisted, 59, 163–65

    • expensive, 160–61

    • line textures, 162

    • methods for producing, 59

    • point symbols, 162

    • recommendations report and, 336–37

    • tactile technologies and, 57–59, 159–65

    • tooling, 162–63

  • Talking Books, 63–64. See also Digital Talking Books

  • task analysis, 395

  • teacher assessment and observation, 184–85

  • teaching assistive technology

    • diagnostic teaching, employing

      • employing, 393–96

      • periodic reevaluation, 394–96

      • progress monitoring, 393–94

    • proactive approach to

      • early intervention, 390–92

      • general education curriculum, knowing, 392

      • state standards and testing, knowing about, 392–93

      • taking, 390–93

    • when to start, 389–90

    • See also training

  • technologies

    • for electronic information, accessing, 79–119

    • for learning and literacy, 3–16

    • for materials in alternate formats, producing, 145–69

    • for print information, accessing, 24–77

    • for written communication, producing, 120–44

  • Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference (CSUN), 401–2

  • technology difficulties, troubleshooting

    • hardware and software problems, 397–98

    • operator errors, 398

    • plan for responding to, 385

  • technology tools, IEP team recommendations for use of, 384

  • telescopes, 29–30, 339, 341

  • temperature of testing environment, 196

  • testing environment, 192, 195

    • setting up, 196

  • Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, 231, 232, 395

  • text readers, 106

  • textbooks, 146, 148, 153, 154

  • thesauruses, electronic/talking, 100

  • thumb drive, 67, 81, 89, 168, 233

  • tone indexing, 64

  • tooling, 59, 162–63

  • touch tablets, 103–4

  • training

    • planning for

      • availability of assistive technology and time to practice, 406

      • goals and objectives of training, 405

      • instruction in writing, step-by-step, 405

      • release time, 405

      • space and equipment, appropriate, 405–6

      • specific topic, 405

      • technology training plan, 404–5

    • staff and families, 406

    • for teachers

      • awareness of assistive technology, 399

      • instructional strategies, 403–4

      • operational knowledge, 402–3

      • resources for learning about assistive technology, 400–402

  • transcribers, 57, 154, 155, 156, 157

  • troubleshooting. See technology difficulties, troubleshooting

  • twin camera system, 35

  • unidirectional microphones, 167

  • vendors, 194–95

  • video cameras, IEP team recommendations for use of, 341–42. See also digital video cameras

  • video display systems, 76–77

  • video magnification systems, 29

    • advantages/disadvantages of, 35–36, 39–40

    • in assistive technology assessment process, 218–26

    • desktop video magnifiers, 36, 38, 40–44, 224, 332, 334

    • digital imaging systems, 49–52, 225

    • electronic pocket magnifiers, 48–49, 225, 334

    • features commonly found in

      • color camera, 33

      • computer compatibility, 35

      • false color, 33

      • focus options, 34

      • laptop compatibility, 34–35

      • line features, 34

      • monitor type and size, 34

      • other special features, 35

      • reverse polarity, 33

      • twin camera system, 35

      • viewing modes, 33–34

      • X-Y table, 34, 36, 37–38

    • flex-arm camera models, 44–46, 224

    • head-mounted display models, 47–48, 225

    • portable models with handheld cameras, 46–47, 225, 340

    • recommendations report and, 332–34

    • sample form, 220–23

  • viewing modes, 33–34

  • visual access

    • in assistive technology assessment process

      • enlarged print produced on photocopier, 207–8

      • large print, 208–12

      • nonoptical devices, 212–16

      • optical devices, 216–19

      • output devices, 240–44

      • regular print, 204–6

      • scanning systems for, specialized, 226

      • screen-enlarging hardware, 244–45

      • screen magnification software assessment, 314–15

      • software options, 245

      • video magnifiers (CCTVs), 219–26

      • visual and physical fatigue, 226, 228–29

    • to computer, recommendations report and

      • adjustable monitor stands, 345–46

      • CRT, 345

      • large monitors, 345

      • LCD, 345

      • operating system accessibility options, 346

      • screen magnification software, 346–47

      • screen magnifying lenses, 346

    • to electronic information

      • computers, 82–99

      • dictionaries, thesauruses, and other reference works, 100

      • e-book readers, 99

      • electronic calculators, 99–100

    • to print information

      • nonoptical devices, 25–27

      • optical devices, 27–32

      • scanning and OCR systems, 52–56

      • video magnification systems, 32–52

    • to print information, recommendations report and

      • enlarged materials, 329

      • large print, 329–30

      • low-tech solutions, 328–29

      • nonoptical devices, 331–32

      • scanned materials, 330–31

      • scanners and specialized scanning systems, 334–35

      • video magnifiers, 332–34

  • visual and physical fatigue, 226, 228–29

  • visual impairment, impact of, 4

  • visually enhanced text or graphics, 26

  • visual reading rate, strategies for increasing, 97–98

  • visual technologies

    • for accessing print information

      • nonoptical devices, 25–28

      • optical devices, 27–32

      • scanning and OCR systems, 52–56

      • video magnifiers, 33–52

    • for producing materials in alternate formats

      • commercially produced large print, 148–49

      • computer-based large-print production, 149–53

      • materials enlarged on a photocopying machine, 147–48

    • for producing written communication

      • electronic writing tools, 121–32

      • manual writing tools, 121

  • voice recognition software, 350

  • Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 110

  • Wheatley Tactile Diagramming Kit, 161

  • Wikki Stix, 161

  • Windows display appearance checklist, 246–47

  • word-processing software, 123–26

    • accessible computers with, 143

    • braillewriters, 141–42

    • computer-based, 73

    • formatting and proofreading features, 143

  • word processors

    • dedicated, 122–23

    • documents, setting up, 124

    • drop-down menus, 125

    • electronic/talking, 105, 143

  • worksheets, using imaging software to complete, 130

  • writing tools. See also communicating through writing

    • for braille readers

      • braille translation software, 363

      • braillewriter, 269, 361–62

      • embossers, 364–65

      • ink printers, 364–65

      • recommendations report and, 361–62

      • sample form, 270

      • signature writing, 269, 271

      • slate and stylus, 269, 361–62

    • electronic, 121–32

      • accessible computer with word-processing program, 271, 273

      • accessible PDAs, 273

      • braillewriter, 362

      • computers, 123–32

      • computer with flatbed scanner and imaging program, 271

      • electronic braillewriters, 273

      • laptop and notebook computers, 132

      • materials needed, 271

      • portable devices, 122–23

      • sample form, 272

    • manual, 121

      • braillewriter, 361–62

    • using visual access, 264–68

  • written communication. See communicating through writing

  • WYNN, 236

  • X-Y table, 34, 36, 37–38

    • friction brake, 37

    • margin stops, 37–38

    • motorized, 38

Previous | Next | Table of Contents

Assistive Technology for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired © 2009 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


www.afb.org | Change Colors and Text Size | Contact Us | Site Map |
 
About AFB | Press Room | Bookstore | Donate | Policy Statement


Please direct your comments and suggestions to afbinfo@afb.net
Copyright © 2008 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.

  Valid HTML 4.0!