Skip to Content

AFBAmerican Foundation®
for the Blind

Expanding possibilities for people with vision loss

NLTS2 Tables: Transition of Youth with Visual Impairments, Multiple Impairments, or Deaf-Blindness

Table 1. Changes in School-Exit Status and Timing
Table 2. Changes in the Living Arrangements of Out-of-School Youth
Table 3. Changes in Aspects of the Social Involvement of Out-of-School Youth
Table 4. Changes in Postsecondary Education Participation Since High School
Table 5. Changes in Job Characteristics of Out-of-School Youth
Table 6. Changes in Employment Status of Out-of-School Youth
Table 7. Changes in Engagement in School, Work, or Preparation for Work of Out-of-School Youth, by Disability


Table 1. Changes in School-Exit Status and Timing

Visual Impairment
Multiple Disabilities/Deaf-Blindness
Percentage completing high school
   Cohort 1 (1987) 85.1  26.2 
(5.8) (11.7)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 94.0  50.8 
(4.7) (13.8)
   Percentage-point change +8.9  +24.6 
Percentage dropping out of high school
   Cohort 1 (1987) 14.9  73.8 
(5.8) (11.7)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 6.0  49.2 
(4.7) (13.8)
   Percentage-point change -8.9  -24.6 
Percentage out of high school at least 1 year
   Cohort 1 (1987) 35.3  65.2 
(7.6) (12.2)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 69.7  36.6 
(9.0) (12.5)
   Percentage-point change +34.4* -28.6 

Sources: NLTS Wave 1 parent interviews and NLTS2 Wave 2 parent/youth interviews.
Statistically significant difference in a two-tailed test is at the following level: *p<.05.
Standard errors are in parentheses.



Table 2. Changes in the Living Arrangements of Out-of-School Youth

Visual Impairment
Multiple Disabilities/Deaf-Blindness
Percentage who lived:
With a parent/guardian
     Cohort 1 (1987) 76.3  58.1 
(6.8) (12.7)
     Cohort 2 (2003) 80.5  76.9 
(7.8) (10.9)
   Percentage-point change +4.2  +18.8 
Independently (alone, with a spouse or roommate, or in military housing or a college dormitory)
   Cohort 1 (1987) 15.8  1.3 
(5.9) (2.9)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 14.8  4.4 
(6.8) (5.3)
   Percentage-point change -1.0  +3.1 
  In an institution or facility
   Cohort 1 (1987) 0.8  30.6 
(1.4) (11.9)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 0.0  5.5 
(5.9)
   Percentage-point change -0.8  -25.1 

Sources: NLTS Wave 1 parent interviews and NLTS2 Wave 2 parent/youth interviews.
Standard errors are in parentheses.



Table 3. Changes in Aspects of the Social Involvement of Out-of-School Youth

Visual Impairment
Multiple Disabilities/Deaf-Blindness
In the past year, percentage of youth out of school more than a year who participated in:
One or more community groups
     Cohort 1 (1987) 36.6  --  
(13.7)
     Cohort 2 (2003) 43.3  13.3 
(13.3) (10.5)
       Percentage-point change +6.7 
Volunteer work//activities or community service
     Cohort 1 (1987) 11.9  --  
(8.0)
     Cohort 2 (2003) 53.8  36.4 
(13.8) (15.3)
       Percentage-point change +41.9*
Percent who ever had experienced negative consequences for behavior
     Cohort 1 (1987) 7.9  45.8 
(4.5) (13.8)
     Cohort 2 (2003) 14.6  35.8 
(7.2) (12.8)
       Percentage-point change +6.7  -10.0 

Sources: NLTS Wave 1 parent interviews and NLTS2 Wave 2 parent/youth interviews.
-- Too few to report separately.
Statistically significant difference in a two-tailed test at the following level: *p<.05.
Standard errors are in parentheses.



Table 4. Changes in Postsecondary Education Participation Since High School

Visual Impairment
Multiple Disabilities/Deaf-Blindness
Percentage participating since high school in:
Any postsecondary education
   Cohort 1 (1987) 32.8  --  
(7.7)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 66.1  40.1 
(9.6) (16.9)
   Percentage-point change +33.3**
  2-year college
   Cohort 1 (1987) 6.1  0.0 
(4.1)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 38.5  9.8 
(10.1) (10.7)
   Percentage-point change +32.4** +9.8 
  4-year college
   Cohort 1 (1987) 17.2  1.6 
(6.2) (3.9)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 40.7  3.5 
(10.2) (6.4)
   Percentage-point change +23.5* +1.9 
  Postsecondary vocational, technical, or business school
   Cohort 1 (1987) 10.9  --  
(5.3)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 8.7  29.8 
(5.8) (15.9)
   Percentage-point change -2.2 

Sources: NLTS Wave 1 parent interviews and NLTS2 Wave 2 parent/youth interviews
-- Too few to report separately.
Statistically significant difference in a two-tailed test at the following levels: *p<.05, **p<.01.
Standard errors are in parentheses.



Table 5. Changes in Job Characteristics of Out-of-School Youth

Visual Impairment
Multiple Disabilities/Deaf-Blindness
Percentage of working youth who:
  Worked full-Time (35 hours per week or more)
   Cohort 1 (1987) 44.0  --  
(13.4) --  
   Cohort 2 (2003) 28.7  27.1 
(12.5) (20.2
   Percentage-point change -15.3  --  
Earned more than the federal minimum wage
   Cohort 1 (1987) --   --  
--   --  
   Cohort 2 (2003) 67.6  65.5 
(13.7) (19.5)
   Percentage-point change --   --  
Were employed in 1
  Retail
   Cohort 1 (1987) --   --  
--   --  
   Cohort 2 (2003) 11.9  10.9 
(8.4) (12.4)
   Percentage-point change --   --  
  Clerical
   Cohort 1 (1987) --   --  
--   --  
   Cohort 2 (2003) 13.1  6.0 
(8.8) (9.4)
   Percentage-point change --   --  
  Maintenance
   Cohort 1 (1987) --   --  
--   --  
   Cohort 2 (2003) 7.4  4.6 
(6.8) (8.3)
   Percentage-point change --   --  

Sources NLTS Wave1 parent interviews and NLTS2 Wave 2 parent/youth interviews.
Standard errors are in parentheses.
1. The categories of trades, child care, food service, and other support and service jobs are omitted from the exhibit because there were no significant changes over time for any category.



Table 6. Changes in Employment Status of Out-of-School Youth

Visual Impairment
Multiple Disabilities/Deaf-Blindness
Percentage:
Who worked for pay since leaving high school
   Cohort 1 (1987) 36.6  9.6 
(7.8) (7.6)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 62.4  36.1 
(9.7) (12.7)
   Percentage-point change +25.8* +26.5 
Currently worked for pay
   Cohort 1 (1987) 29.9  14.1 
(7.6) (11.1)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 62.4  36.1 
(9.7) (12.7)
   Percentage-point change -2.3  +11.6 

Sources: NLTS Wave 1 parent interviews and NLTS2 Wave 2 parent/youth interviews.
Standard errors are in parentheses.
Statistically significant difference in a two-tailed test *p<.05



Table 7. Changes in Engagement in School, Work, or Preparation for Work of Out-of-School Youth, by Disability

Visual Impairment
Multiple Disabilities/Deaf-Blindness
Since night school, percentage engaged in:
Postsecondary education, paid employment, or job training
   Cohort 1 (1987) 65.0  26.1 
(7.7) (14.0)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 73.9  58.6 
(8.6) (13.3)
   Percentage-point change +8.9  +32.5 
Postsecondary education only
   Cohort 1 (1987) 15.1  7.3 
(5.8) (8.3)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 10.1  19.3 
(5.9) (10.7)
   Percentage-point change -5.0  +12.0 
Paid employment only
   Cohort 1 (1987) 11.9  9.3 
(5.2) (9.3)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 10.2  29.2 
(5.9) (12.3)
   Percentage-point change -1.7  +19.9 
Job training only
   Cohort 1 (1987) 4.5  5.1 
(3.3) (7.0)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 0.0  0.0 
--   --  
   Percentage-point change -4.5  -5.1 
Postsecondary education and paid employment
   Cohort 1 (1987) 8.8  0.0 
(4.6) --  
   Cohort 2 (2003) 35.9  7.1
(9.4) (7.0)
   Percentage-point change +27.1** +7.1 
Postsecondary education and job training
   Cohort 1 (1987) 9.5 0.0
(4.7) --  
   Cohort 2 (2003) 2,1  1.5 
(2.8) (3.3)
   Percentage-point change -7.4  1.5 
Paid employment and job training
   Cohort 1 (1987) 12.4  2.9 
(5.3) (5.4)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 0.4  0.4 
(1.2) (1.7)
   Percentage-point change -12.0* -2.5 
Postsecondary education, paid employment, and job training
   Cohort 1 (1987) 2.8  1.6 
(2.7) (4.0)
   Cohort 2 (2003) 15.2  1.2 
(7.0) (3.0)
   Percentage-point change +12.4  -0.4 

Sources: NLTS Wave 1 parent interviews and NLTS2 Wave 2 parent/youth interviews.
Standard errors are in parentheses.
Statistically significant difference in a two-tailed test at *p<.05, **p<.01.


services icon Directory of Services

featured icon Featured Items

book icon Featured Book

JVIB Special Issue on Critical Issues in Visual Impairment & BlindnessJVIB Special Issue on Critical Issues in Visual Impairment & Blindness

JVIB Special Issue on Critical Issues in Visual Impairment & Blindness

Help Make Drug Labels Safer

Help make prescription drugs safe for people with low vision. Support our Rx Label Enable Campaign today.