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AFBAmerican Foundation®
for the Blind

Expanding possibilities for people with vision loss

Reading and Vision Loss

If you're losing your vision, one of your greatest concerns may be the possibility of no longer being able to read. After all, literacy is a key to personal independence and access to information. With today's technology, however, you now have many helpful reading options.

Large print books, magnification tools, braille, audio books, and a constantly growing number of products will allow you to continue to read the morning paper, the latest bestseller, your monthly phone bill, and your favorite magazine.

While there are many reading tools available to you, it's important to remember that any solution will require that you learn to read in a different way. Audio books, magnification, and other options can be very effective, but also will take time and patience to learn to manage.

In the end, the best approach to reading may be the "hodgepodge" method: try out, and mix and match, different techniques based on your own comfort level and reading habits. Not every solution is right for everyone, so do what's best for you. The links that follow will give you an idea of the wide variety of reading formats that are available.

Bigger and Better: Large Print

Perhaps the most comfortable way to transition to reading with vision loss, at least in the beginning, is also the simplest: bigger print. Most major publishing houses today produce bestsellers and other materials in large print formats, which are available at retail book stores.

Large print collections are also available at most public libraries. Enlarging the font or increasing the text size through the accessibility features on a tablet or an iPad can enhance the readability of electronic books, newspapers and much, much more. Kindle

Amazon made its line of Kindle Fire HD and HDX tablets speech-accessible using modified versions of Android screen reader and screen magnification software. Here is how the Kindle works:

  • Turn on the Kindle Fire's speech by holding the power button until you hear a beep.
  • Place two fingers slightly apart on the screen for about five seconds.
  • The Kindle will begin speaking, prompting you to continue pressing your fingers against the screen to complete the installation of the voice access software.
  • Performing the same steps with three fingers calls up screen magnification.

Kindle Navigation Gestures

A brief tutorial helps you learn and practice several of the navigation gestures, including swiping left or right to advance forward or backward, double-tapping to activate an item, sliding one finger down and left to go back and sliding it up and to the left to go to the device's home screen.

Kindle Marquee Features

One of the Marquee features available on the Kindle Fire HDX and HDX 8.9, but not the Fire HD, is the Mayday Button. A tap of this button summons live video help, with the representative's image on your screen. The video feed is one-way only, and the rep only can hear your voice.

He or she can, with your permission, take control of your Kindle, to troubleshoot problems or walk you through a quick how-to within 30 seconds.

Enjoying Your Kindle

You can purchase videos, music and books from the Amazon Store on the Kindle Fire and enjoy them almost instantly. With an Amazon Prime membership you also receive free access to their extensive library of movies and TV programs, along with the Kindle lending library stocked with over 350,000 titles you can keep as long as you like.

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Lend Us Your Ears: Reading by Listening

Not many people realize that the earliest phonograph records were created specifically to provide spoken recordings for people who could not read because they were blind. Recorded music came later, but recording the written word for use by people with vision loss continues today.

Audio books and a new generation of listening devices are helpful for readers with limited vision and are an increasingly popular reading option for sighted audiences as well. Almost any popular novel or nonfiction book, general interest and trade magazines, and newspapers is now available in a variety of accessible audio formats.

Talking Books

Launched in 1933 and sponsored by the Library of Congress, the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) is a national network of cooperating libraries that distribute recorded books to people with vision loss.

These books are loaned and mailed free of charge, and are played on machines provided by the NLS program. The books come in special containers that are mailed back free of charge. Talking Books can also be downloaded from the Braille and Audio Reading Download website (BARD) for play on the Digital Talking Book Player via a USB thumb drive or on portable players compatible with the NLS format. To apply for this service, call (800) 424-8567, go to the NLS website, or visit your local library. BARD Mobile is available in the App Store for iOS devices such as the iPod Touch, the iPhone, or the iPad.

Commercial Audio Books

Available at all major booksellers, these are CD editions of commercial bestsellers read by their authors or by noted actors. Audio books are now so popular that many publishers release the audio version of a new title simultaneously with its print counterpart. Your local library may even have an audio book section.

Downloadable Audio Books

These books are digital files that contain the same content as conventional audio books but can be downloaded on to a personal computer or a portable device such as an MP3 player. Apps for the iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch make the download and listening process seamless for many audio books.

If you're not technically oriented, the digital option may seem unfamiliar, but it does have advantages that make it worth exploring. The main advantage is navigation.

CDs offer limited movement backward or forward within the text. Digital playback is much more flexible, allowing the user to jump back or forward by chapter or sometimes by page. You can even set digital bookmarks that let you find a particular passage instantly.

Here is more information about downloadable audio books:

  • Electronic Audio Books are recorded electronically and stored in files on the Web, or downloaded to your own computer.
  • Sometimes they are especially designed for people who are blind or have low vision and use the DAISY (Digital Accessible Information SYstem) format.
  • This format has encoded markers for chapters, subheadings, paragraphs, and other codes that help the listener navigate through the book and bookmark passages of interest.
  • The DAISY format means that Digital Audio Books will not work on players that are not designed to play them.
  • If you have a computer, you can get software that can play the DAISY format. You can also buy a stand-alone machine that plays Digital Audio Books.
  • Some Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) can play the DAISY format. Look for a PDA that understands DAISY and has sufficient memory for storing your books.
  • Stand-alone machines can also be small and portable and will play MP3 files and music CDs too.

DAISY books can contain both text and audio files. The text portion can be displayed on a braille display or on a screen in a larger font size. You can search the text for key words or passages. Unlike CDs, you don't have to rewind or fast forward. And you can increase or decrease the reading speed without affecting the quality of the narrator's voice.

Ask yourself the following questions before purchasing a digital audio book player:

  • Do you want a portable player or a software player that runs on your computer? If you want to use it on your computer, you will need a software player that is compatible with your computer's operating system.
  • If you have a portable player, does your PDA already support the DAISY format and have sufficient memory for storing books? Can your PDA memory be expanded?
  • Do you want a player that plays CDs, or a player that plays files transferred directly from your computer? Should it also play MP3, WAV, WMA file formats?
  • If you are buying software, do you want a version that allows you to produce, as well as listen to, books?

Audio Book Resources

  • is the first and most successful source of commercial electronic books online. You can find the same popular audio books that are available on CD from various publishers, usually priced at 30 percent below retail. You have the choice of listening to the books on your computer (called streaming), listening on your iPhone, or transferring them to a portable MP3 player.
  • Please note: Not all portable devices will play Audible files or are accessible to people with vision loss. Some popular models that meet both criteria are the iPhone 3GS and newer models, the iPad, the iPod Touch and the iPod Shuffle.
  • PlayAway Books are ideal starters for older readers who have never used a digital audio book. Packaged to resemble print books—with artwork and jacket information reproduced on the front and back covers—PlayAway books are self-contained listening devices. You don't need a separate device to play them. Each PlayAway is about the size of a credit card and contains one featured selection. A set of earplugs, a spare battery, and operating instructions are included. To listen to audio samples, visit the PlayAway Books site.
  • Public libraries in a growing number of U.S. cities are now offering audio books online. These books are played in Windows Media Player with the assistance of a special program called OverDrive, which you can download for free. Books are generally available on loan for a two- or three-week period, just like hardcopy books. Instead of having to return the book to the library, however, it will simply vanish from your computer's hard drive when the loan period ends. To find out if this service is available in your area, visit OverDrive's Digital Library Reserve. You'll also need a library card from your local library.

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Beyond Your Local Retailer: "Specialty" Digital Players and Services

Your local library or electronics store isn't your only choice when shopping for digital book players or services for reading and listening. A number of specialty products and services are designed for people with vision loss. Here are some of the more popular ones: is a subscription service available exclusively to individuals with vision loss or people who have a learning disability. (You must provide proof of one or the other to join). For an annual fee, members can download to their computers, PDAs, or specialty book players their choice of thousands of copyrighted bestsellers and periodicals. Non-members can download non-copyrighted material, such as classics by Charles Dickens and Jane Austen, free of charge.

Unlike other audio books, Bookshare titles are not read by human narrators. Rather, they produce synthetic speech based on the written text. Most computers come equipped with speech synthesizer software that can perform this function. Bookshare also enables you to read the text on your computer with the use of screen enlargement software, or on your PDA with a braille display.

Material at is uploaded by volunteers—most of them blind or visually impaired themselves—and sometimes contains scanning errors, which are usually minor. To learn more, listen to an audio sample, or become a Bookshare member, go to the Bookshare websit3.


NFB-Newsline® is the equivalent of a news stand, but one that is available over your telephone. Created by the National Federation of the Blind, NFB-Newsline makes it possible for people with vision loss to read hundreds of different newspapers and dozens of magazines from any telephone. Here is how it works:

  • After dialing a toll-free number and logging in with your passcode, you are welcomed by a very clear voice.
  • From there, you can use your phone's keypad to access any newspaper of your choice.
  • You can skip forward or back by section, article, or sentence; have unfamiliar words spelled out to you; speed up or slow down the reading pace; and skim the headlines.

To listen to an audio sample, find out if you're eligible, and to sign up, visit the NFB-Newsline website.

Radio Reading Services

Radio reading services are available in many parts of the country. These services employ volunteer readers to provide audio radio access to newspapers, magazines, consumer information, and other materials that may not be readily available in braille or on tape.

Listeners can tune in for the day's news, features, sports, business, opinions, advertisements, and other features. Public affairs programs are also available on many services, as are some books or story-based shows.

Volunteer reads the comics section of the newspaper for a radio reading service

Radio reading services allow you to keep up on news and even the comics.

Radio reading services are typically broadcast on a sub-carrier channel of an FM radio station. Listeners must have a special, pre-tuned radio receiver to pick up the closed circuit broadcast. Receivers are frequently loaned to listeners by the reading service at no cost.

Some services provide radio reading services programming on television over a SAP (second audio program) channel, community cable system, or FM cable service. Many services also offer live audio streaming of their programming over the Internet while others offer access to archived readings through the Internet or telephone dial-in system.

One popular internet radio service is ACB Radio from the American Council of the Blind. You can visit the site to listen to broadcasts. For more options, go to the International Association of Audio Information Services website to find a program near you.

Designed with You in Mind: Proprietary Players

While there are commercial audio players that work reasonably well for people with limited vision, numerous players have been designed specifically with the vision loss community in mind. There are no visual prompts to deal with. All are operated by listening to audio cues and pressing easy-to-use keys.

Victor Reader Stream

The Victor Reader Stream (VR Stream) is sold by HumanWare. About the size of a deck of cards, it features both text-to-speech capabilities and digital audio support. This means you can read electronic files (with synthetic speech) or digital recorded books (with human speech).

This versatile device plays books in a variety of digital formats from Learning Ally [Formerly Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic (RFB&D)], and digital Talking Books from NLS and It can also play text files that have been loaded into it, as well as your favorite music.

Simple to use, the VR Stream lets you place electronic bookmarks in any file and locate specific information or favorite passages quickly. It has variable speed playback, a time Jump feature, auto Sleep shutoff with multiple time settings, and a key lock feature. A digital recorder accessed with one button allows you to record a note and play it back later.

The VR Stream comes with a built-in rechargeable battery providing up to 15 hours of uninterrupted listening time. It has small built-in stereo speakers, or you can use headphones or small portable speakers that plug into the headphone jack.

Milestone 312

The Milestone 312 is another handheld player designed specifically for people who are blind or visually impaired. Developed in Switzerland, it is sold in the U.S. by Independent Living Aids.

About the size of a credit card, this portable player can be used for MP3 files of music or audio books. It can play books which have been recorded in an accessible format called DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System), which allows for easy skipping around within a book by chapter and heading.

It has a built-in speaker so you don't need to buy headphones. It also has a recording device and a removable secure digital card for storage of books and music. However, you cannot use it to listen to documents or web pages.

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