Description of Practice Report: The Use of Tactile Modeling and Physical Guidance as Instructional Strategies in Physical Activity for Children Who Are Blind
To develop into healthy, physically active adults, all children need education in physical fitness, health, wellness, and lifetime sports and recreation (Ross, Lottes, & Glenn, 1998). Studies have indicated that children who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) have lower levels of fitness and less well-developed motor skills than do their sighted peers (Buell, 1950a, 1950b; Daugherty & Moran, 1982; Jankowski & Evans, 1981; Lieberman & McHugh, 2001; Pereira, 1990; Ribadi, Rider, & Toole, 1987; Skaggs & Hopper, 1996; Skellenger, Rosenblum, & Jager, 1997; Winnick & Short, 1982). In fact, children who are visually impaired have various delays in motor skills and development (Dunn & Leitschuh, 2006; Hatton, Bailey, Burchinal, & Ferrell, 1997; Jan, Sykanda, & Groenveld, 1990; Troster & Brambring, 1993; Troster, Hecker, & Brambring, 1994). Hatton et al. (1997) found that the more visually impaired a child is, the slower the child's rate of development of motor skills. This area is of great importance to educators and caregivers because there is a strong association between motor development and emotional and behavioral deficits in children who are visually impaired (Ophir-Cohen, Ashkenazy, Cohen, & Tirosh, 2005).