Description of A Systematic Review of Transition Interventions Affecting the Employability of Youths with Visual Impairments
Abstract: Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to identify and synthesize studies of transition interventions to improve the employability and employment outcomes for youths with visual impairments. Methods: An a priori protocol was followed in conducting a systematic review of the literature, including criteria for selecting studies, search strategies, and a synthesis of findings. Results: Fifteen studies of interventions to improve the employability of youths with visual impairments were identified. Four studies used two-group designs with control or comparison groups, four used single-subject, multiple-baseline designs, and seven used single-group designs (no control or comparison groups). Of the four two-group designs, two reported statistically significant relationships between the transition intervention and factors related to employment. A meta-synthesis indicated the efficacy of several interventions to improve the career-awareness, job-seeking, independent-living, and social skills of the participants. Discussion: Interventions that were found to enhance employability skills and self-constructs were also identified in correlational research as predictors of the successful employment of youths with visual impairments. There were no studies of interventions that directly resulted in employment. Only 3 of the 15 studies used designs with random assignment to groups--the most rigorous in evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. Implications for practitioners: There is a critical need for information on evidenced-based practices that affect the successful transition of young adults with visual impairments. Practitioners are encouraged to implement rigorous evaluation methods to evaluate transition practices and to publish findings as a basis for public policy and the development of high-quality programs.