Description of Research Report: Correlates of Substance Dependence among People with Visual Impairments
The two major forms of substance use disorders are abuse and dependence (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Both can result from the use of alcohol and illicit, prescription, and over-the-counter drugs. Both can cause serious problems, though dependence is considered more severe. A dependence diagnosis requires at least three of the following during a 12-month period: (1) tolerance to the substance; (2) withdrawal symptoms; (3) use of larger amounts than intended; (4) persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to limit use; (5) considerable time spent obtaining, using, and recovering from the substance; (6) important activities abandoned or reduced; (7) continued use despite associated psychological or physical problems (APA, 2000).