Description of Using Tactile Maps to Improve the Practical Spatial Knowledge of Adults Who Are Blind
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of three instructional methods--direct experience, cartographic representation, and verbal description--on the spatial knowledge of 30 adults who are blind. During four sessions, the participants learned a large, complex route in Madrid that included eight landmarks. In the first session, the experimenter guided the participants along the route, and in the subsequent sessions, the participants guided the experimenter. The results showed that the participants' practical spatial knowledge was better when they learned the route with a tactile map than in either of the two other conditions.