Description of Research Notes: Adaptation of a Test of Nonverbal Ability for the Vocational Assessment of Adults with Visual Impairments
Reid (1997) reviewed past efforts to develop psychometrically sound ability tests for adults who are visually impaired. As a measure of verbal intelligence, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (WAIS-R) (Wechsler, 1981) verbal scales were identified as the instrument of choice. Relying on a test of verbal skills provides a vocational assessment that is less comprehensive than that afforded sighted adults and can be biased when the test is not in the client’s first language and the client is from another culture. Attempts to measure nonverbal ability have included the use of the WAIS-R performance scales (Cotton, 1989), an adaptation of Raven’s Progressive Matrices (Rich and Anderson, 1965, cited in Scholl and Schnur, 1976), an adaptation of the Kohs Block Design Test, producing the Ohwaki-Kohs Tactile Block Design Test (O-KTBDT) (Ohwaki et al., 1960, cited in Dauterman, Shapiro, and Suinn, 1967), and the creation of a number of new tactile tests (for example, Gough and Domino, 1963). The majority of such tests have not been widely used, and many are no longer available.