The Unseen Minority: A Social History of Blindness in the United States

Chapter Notes

Key to Abbreviations


MRB M. Robert Barnett
CFFC Charles F. F. Campbell
RBI Robert B. Irwin
HK Helen Keller
HRL H. Randolph Latimer
ASM Anne Sullivan Macy
MCM M. C. Migel
PJS Peter J. Salmon


AAIB American Association of Instructors of the Blind
AAWB American Association of Workers for the Blind
AFB American Foundation for the Blind
BVA Blinded Veterans of America
LC Library of Congress
NFB National Federation of the Blind
Perkins Perkins School for the Blind, formerly Perkins Institution and Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind


Outlook Outlook for the Blind, 1907–1950; New Outlook for the Blind, 1951
TBT Talking Book Topics
TF Teachers Forum

Unless otherwise indicated, all correspondence, minutes, and memos referred to are in AFB files. Books identified by author's name or title only are listed in the Bibliography. The page numbers listed here refer to the print edition.

1. Myths, Taboos, and Stereotypes

2  "in Wagria and other Wendish lands": French, 34

3  "Ox liver, roasted and pounded": Ross, 12

3  "Now blind": Lines 563–568

4  "to have to tell a person that he is blind": Cholden, 18

4  —Other psychiatrists have equated: Otto Fenichel, "Scotophilic Instinct and Identification," International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1937, cited in "Attitudes toward Blindness," 6

4  "a mediaeval ignorance": Mainstream, 79

4  "To suppose there can be": 1848 annual report, Perkins, 37

5  "Dark night": Act III, Scene II, lines 177–180

5  —Working with paired blind and sighted subjects: Michael Supa, Milton Cotzin and Karl M. Dallenbach, " 'Facial Vision': the Perceptions of Obstacles by the Blind," American Journal of Psychology, April 1944, 133–183

5  —The same conclusion had been reached: Griffin, 57–64

5  —As reported in the Official Bulletin of the Chicago Medical Society: Vol. 21, p. 29

6  "Miss Huggins gave": JAMA, June 17, 1922, 1891

6  —In the same issue: 1892

6  —A follow-up study: Robert H. Gault, "An Unusual Case of Olfactory and Tactile Sensitivity," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, 1922–3, 395–401

7  —A statement by her: Christian Science Sentinel. January 26, 1929, 436

7  —Willetta later changed her name: telephone conversation with author, November 2, 1970

7  —the Italian criminologist: cited in Edwards, 63

7  —Their opinion was shared: Tom W. Gerber, "Call Blind Claim Hoax," Boston Traveler, September 11, 1957

7  —Soviet scientists who examined Rosa: Stanley Krippner and Richard Davison, "Parapsychology in the U.S.S.R.," Saturday Review, March 18, 1972, 57

7  —American interest in the subject: R. P. Youtz, "Can Fingers See Color?," Psychology Today, February 1968, 36–41

8  "to be able to blow your own nose": Lloyd W. Greenwood, "Return to Manhood," BVA Bulletin, December 1947

8  "that Louis, moved probably by the misery": French, 47

9  "Unquestionably the most worthy": Mrs. George S. Kessler quoted in Boston Sunday Herald, November 12, 1916

9  —In 1918 an estimated $31 million: Best, 96

12  "an age of rose-colored nightmares": Snowman, 11

13  "… the oldest form of tax-supported": Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown, Harcourt, Brace & World, 1929, 467

13  "extends ready sympathy": ibid.

2. Five Days at Vinton

16  "In 1895, at St. Louis": Norman Yoder, "American Association of Workers for the Blind, 1895–1964," Blindness 1964, 151–175

16  "We ask that blind persons": ibid.

20  "Though I was as blind as a chicken": Outlook, Spring 1914, 30

21  "The Executive Committee": Outlook, Fall 1920, 46

22  "We were neither reckless": Outlook, Summer 1921, 89–90

23  "The work being done for the blind": Evergreen Review, July 1920

24  "late of Purdue University": Outlook, Spring 1919, 1

25  "Resolved, that this Association": Outlook, April 1920, 31

26  "a properly constituted organization": Outlook, Summer 1921, 91

3. Talent Hunt

29  "a competent sighted man": letter, HRL to Charles B. Hayes, December 28, 1921

30  "This man need not necessarily be": letter, MCM to Leo B. Durstine, August 2, 1922

30  "We have come to the conclusion": letter, MCM to RBI, October 31, 1922

33  "There is a more or less ill defined fear": Outlook, Summer 1922, 42–44

33  "the receipts of the sale": Outlook, June 1924, 6–7

35  "He has a genius for harmonizing": letter, ASM to MCM, June 25, 1925

36  "Olympia, the nearest city": Washington Alumnus, January 1945

37  "ran a cigar stand": ibid.

38  "were, to say the least, unconventional": Latimer, 272

39  "it became Mr. Irwin's direct responsibility": ibid.

4. The Second Career of Major Migel

42  "The lamentable fact": quoted in Irwin, 22–3

44  "Strangely enough": letter, RBI to Murray B. Allen, June 14, 1941

45  —The War Department was in need of silk: a detailed account of this is in Marquis James, "The Profiteer Hunt," American Legion Weekly, June 8, 1923, 7 ff.

48  "an anonymous friend": Outlook, June 1924, 5

49  —Ability to handle figures: this anecdote, as well as many other details of MCM's personal and family life, from author's interviews with Parmenia Migel Ekstrom, December 1970 and January 1971

5. The Facts of Blindness

51  "inadequate, unrealistic, inequitable": Richard E. Hoover, "Toward a New Definition of Blindness," Blindness 1966, 99–106

52  "Now we are confronted": letter, RBI to HK, December 6, 1933

52  —Senator Jennings Randolph recalled: hearings, House Select Subcommittee on Education, November 30 and December 8, 1970, 61–2

54  "from two to two-and-one-half times": Outlook, March 1947, 62

54  "reported 48,929 blind persons": Farrell, Story of Blindness, 213

55  —A much higher rate: Carl Kupfer, M.D., quoted in The Standard-Bearer, National Accreditation Council, Winter 1971, 3

55  "army of the aged blind": Hyman Goldstein in Proceedings of the Research Conference on Geriatric Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment, 13

56  "In practically every instance": Catherine Brannick in report, 15–16, bound in as insert in Outlook, Spring 1910

58  —According to the government-sponsored study: Blindness and Services to the Blind in the United States, 26

58  —A functional breakdown of the $469 million: ibid., 35

6. The Perfect Symbol

60  —While still in college: quotations are from typescript, December 7, 1903, in HK collection of AFB

61  "desire to have me educated": Teacher, 77

62  "For & in behalf": "Mark Twain's Letters," Harper's Monthly, October 1917, 645

62  "It is superb!": ibid.

63  "hoped that the possession of money of their own": Braddy, 178

63  "My sense of pride mutinies": Midstream, 209, 72

63  "all through my life": ibid., 74

63  "It required a powerful temperament": Teacher, 80

65  "Our present idea": letter, MCM to CFCC, November 27, 1923

65  "For years, I have felt": letter, CFCC to MCM, November 30, 1923

66  "You will be interested": letter, RBI to CFFC, January 22, 1924

67  "… we have been working": letter, MCM to CFFC, April 18, 1924

70  "In order to insure the perpetuity": Outlook, Fall 1924, 43

71  "She will not endorse": letter, Charles B. Hayes to MCM, December 8, 1924

72  "Unfortunately, a good many thoughtful givers": letter, CFFC to MCM, February 18, 1925

72  "I know that nearly everybody has heard of me": Midstream, 151, 152–3

73  "Try to imagine": Outlook, September 1925, 26

74  "map out a programme": letter, MCM to ASM, May 12, 1925

75  [Y]our treatment of Helen Keller and me": letter, ASM to MCM, n.d., probably early November 1925

77  "… if, in the judgment of the American Foundation for the Blind": letter, MCM to ASM, November 6, 1925

79  "that Miss Keller be placed on the staff": letter, RBI to Herbert H. White, July 12, 1926

79  "I have not written": letter, HK to Herbert H. White, July 6, 1926

80  "unquestioning faith": Stetson B. Ryan, Outlook, February 1934, 35

80  "It is my recollection": letter, Herbert B. White to HK, August 6, 1926

81  "the money difficulty remains the same": letter, HK to Olin H. Burritt, October 22, 1926

81  "The truth is": letter, HK to Burritt, February 24, 1927

82  "But I am going to make a further request": letter, ASM to MCM, May 18, 1927

83  "I regret deeply": letter, ASM to MCM, July 4, 1927

83  "Also, please send me a memorandum": letter, MCM to HK and ASM, June 19, 1929

83  "It is most dear of you": letter, HK to MCM, June 24, 1929

83  "It's time to say how much I thank you": letter, ASM to MCM, October 1, 1929

83  "Helen is a slow, painstaking worker": letter, ASM to MCM, January 18, 1930

84  "There is no disguising the fact": letter, HK to MCM, January 18, 1930

84  "As to being impatient with you": letter, MCM to HK, January 29, 1930

84  —At the next executive committee meeting: minutes, January 22, 1930

85  —She cited Victor Hugo's parable: letter, HK to MCM, February 4, 1930

85  —When Anne was convalescing: letter, MCM to Robert Moses, May 29, 1935

86  "I am not gifted": letter, HK to Burritt, October 22, 1926

87  "Your letter goes right to the heart": letter, Gustavus A. Pfeiffer to HK, November 25, 1929

7. "Action Is Our Watchword"

90  "Action is our watchword": Outlook, May 1923, 24

90  "There is no endowment": letter, MCM to President Warren G. Harding, November 8, 1922

91  "I recommend that $100,000 be added": letter, C. R. Forbes to Senator Francis Warren, January 11, 1923

91  "If the Foundation did not do another stroke": letter, MCM to Olin H. Burritt, January 17, 1923

92  "is in no position to justify": letter, Frank T. Hines to RBI, February 7, 1927

92  "The truth is, our Veteran readers": letter, RBI to General David C. Shanks, April 6, 1925

95  "more than $21,000 has been saved": Outlook, October 1933, 155

96  —As early as 1907: Newel Perry, "New York's Provision for the Higher Education of the Blind," Outlook, April 1908, 47

96  —A Committee on Scholarship Awards: Outlook, June 1925, 5

97  —successfully functioning as teachers of the sighted: Outlook, September 1929, 16

97  —the overall number of recipients exceeded 300: Director's Report of Activities, AFB, first quarter, 1961–2

98  "The Foundation furnished the director": Annual Report of Director of Research, AFB, October 20, 1924, 1–2

98  —Expectations had been given an invigorating boost: letter, Thomas B. Appleget to MCM, January 29, 1927

99  —Rockefeller promptly made good: letter, Appleget to MCM, June 11, 1928

99  "to establish the following rule": letter, MCM to Charles B. Hayes and RBI, November 18, 1925

100  "I do not see how we could function": letter, RBI to MCM, November 19, 1925

100  —At its next meeting: minutes, AFB executive committee, January 27, 1926

100  "He says that he will continue": letter, RBI to HRL, June 29, 1927

100  "It makes little difference": letter, RBI to HRL, July 7, 1927

101  "In my opinion": letter, HRL to MCM and AFB executive committee, May 5, 1928

8. The Language of the Fingers

105  —the skeleton of his right hand: Farrell (Story of Blindness), 98

107  —The school's music teacher was the first to yield: S. Pollak, "My Autobiography and Reminiscences," St. Louis Medical Review, 1904

108  "The world is at last in accordance": Outlook, December 1929, 13

109  "Many still living": Irwin, 47

109  "I really believe": letter, RBI to MCM, June 29, 1929

109  "It is my belief that a little common sense": Lende et al., 17

111  "were almost dumbfounded": Edward E. Allen in Frank H. Hall, memorial brochure, quoted in Hendrickson, 10

112  "At first I thought of making": Outlook, Summer 1909, 43–4

112  "The work is done by the electric motor": ibid.

115  "Bob Atkinson was blinded": Outlook, April 1964, 132; also The Seer, December 1943, 7

115  —In actual fact: Westrate, 110

117  "an original fellow": letter, RBI to Dr. Frederick B. Keppel, July 12, 1927

117  "interpointing, while it saves about one-third": letter, Barr to MCM, June 17, 1926

118  "The work we have received from the Foundation": letter, Atkinson to MCM, March 9, 1929

118  "A little friendly competition": letter, RBI to Franklin F. Hopper, October 25, 1927

118  "I do not think it wise": letter, Atkinson to MCM, March 9, 1929

121  "has everything one could want": quoted in Outlook, February 1934, 18

126  "I should like nothing better": quoted in Gertrude T. Rider, "Annual Report on Braille Transcribing," Outlook, March 1925, 19

9. Books for the Blind

129  "The library departments for the blind": Irwin, 70

129  "disgruntled by the loss": Lende et al., 210

132  "We have what we believe": quoted in letter, RBI to HK, December 13, 1932

133  "Would you contemplate": hearing, House Committee on the Library, March 27, 1930, 10

133  "would save himself a lot of grief": ibid.

133  "Books are the eyes of the blind": ibid., 21–22. The text as printed in the hearing record gives the word "consummation" in the last line of the second paragraph. The speech draft in the Helen Keller archives shows the word to be "consolation."

134  "a complete monopoly": ibid., 32

134  "a certain tendency": ibid., 34

135  —Dialogue, Schafer and Crail, 7–8

136  —Barr testimony, ibid., 14–23

136  "I am very glad we have had this chance": ibid., 26

136  "We do not come here to split or destroy": ibid., 28

136  —Crail then introduced a new letter: text of letter, ibid., 29–39

138  "Fully 90 percent": Atkinson testimony, ibid., 40–47

138  "Leaving aside the question": Irwin testimony, ibid., 47–50

139  "They are self-constituted bulwarks": ibid., 53

139  "this is not a criminal", ibid., 55

139  —Atkinson then resumed his testimony: ibid., 57–71

140  "has for the past two years": second hearing, 120–122

141  "would be vicious": Congressional Record, February 28, 1931, 6568

142  "I did most of the cross-examining": ibid., 6570

142  "If we, after the hearings": ibid., 6572

142  "because no service would be rendered": ibid., 6575

142  "which is as much if not more": letter, Atkinson to MCM, October 22, 1931

10. The Talking Book

144  "a coincidence not without irony": Lucy A. Goldthwaite in Lende (ed.), Vol. 1, 179

146  "a scheme simmering": letter, RBI to George F. Meyer, April 23, 1924

146  "If we do not die too young": letter, RBI to Frank C. Bryan, February 10, 1925

146  "I have always dreamed": letter, RBI to A. C. Ellis, June 13, 1941

148  "I have in my office": letter, RBI to Frederick P. Keppel, March 26, 1932

148  "could be loaned": letter, RBI to Keppel, March 29, 1932

149  "the doggondest collector": quoted in MRB, "Hindsight," Outlook, January 1959, 39

150  "Since the purpose of the original bill": letter, Herbert Putnam to Senator Jesse H. Metcalf, December 22, 1932

150  "When it has been made perfectly clear": letter, MCM to Metcalf, January 10, 1933

151  —In As I Saw It: p. 75

152  "who is absolutely disinterested": Congressional Record, March 3, 1933, 5726

152  "we can declare ourselves": ibid., 5732

153  "if executive committee ": cable, HK to MCM, September 22, 1933

153  "The only thought which sustains me": letter, HK to MCM, September 29, 1933

154  should "include books which the rank and file": letter, RBI to H. H. B. Meyer, March 14, 1934

155  "when you list": letter, Meyer to RBI, May 7, 1934

156  "there are those who are ever eager": letter, Atkinson to MCM, April 10, 1934

157  "adhere to the system of constant turntable speech": Report of the Advisory Committee Appointed for the Consideration of Talking Machines to Be Used with Talking Books for the Blind, June 12, 1934

157  "when I told him": letter, Atkinson to MCM, July 6, 1934

158  "You must send for Alexander": Kaufman and Hennessey, 177

158  "the magician of words": letter, HK to Will Rogers, April 1, 1930

158  "Here's my little dab": letter, Rogers to HK, May 27, 1930

159  "would render practicable the transcription": letter, RBI to Keppel, January 18, 1935

159  "that you will [some day]": letter, RBI to Ellis, January 26, 1935

159  "there is some probability": letter, Ellis to RBI, February 5, 1935

160  "the machines for using these records": Congressional Record, May 6, 1935, 7258

161  "Please, dear Mr. Roosevelt": HK note, n.d., on back of letter from FDR dated February 7, 1929

162  "If you wish us to do so,": letter, MCM to Herbert Putnam, July 25, 1935

163  "a nice messy job": letter, RBI to HK, August 30, 1935

164  "My first impressions": reprint from Congressional Record, June 16, 1936

164  "I have 16 counties": "A Few Unsolicited Letters Received from Blind Persons Who Have Been Lent WPA Talking Book Machines," memo in AFB files, n.d., ca. October, 1936

165  "shall give preference to non-profit-making": Public Law 76-118, June 7, 1939

167  "would make us more independent": letter, RBI to MCM, June 12, 1937

167  —In mid-1936 a teacher: Kenneth Longsdorf, "The Talking Book in English Classes," TF, May 1936, 97

168  "The speed of the average braille reader": Lowenfeld, "The Talking Book Goes to School," TBT, March 1940, 14

169  "comprehension of narrative material": report to the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, December 1943

11. The Beloved Voices

170  "This thing of recording a book": letter, RBI to Harold T. Clark, January 20, 1933

172  "We have auditioned literally hundreds": unsigned memo in AFB files, "Personalities Who Have Recorded for the Talking Book," n.d., ca. 1943

172  "give to the works they present": Robert S. Bray, "Library Services for the Blind," Bulletin of the Society of Military Ophthalmologists, September 1968, 19

172  "as long as I can speak": quoted in TBT, September 1964, 95

173  "Fifteen years ago I lost my sight": letter, C. E. Seymour to Alexander Scourby, January 29, 1941

173  "Having heard myself on recordings": letter, Dean Acheson to Alan Hewitt, July 9, 1971

174  "Many of our patrons": letter, Martha R. Stewart to Robert S. Bray, March 23, 1966

174  "Whereas the printed play": Outlook, October 1940, 142

175  "Under the operations of the copyright law": David C. Mearns, "The Story Up to Now" in 1946 annual report, LC, 165

178  "prepare a general recording of talks": letter, Joseph P. Blickensderfer to RBI, September 6, 1945

179  "We were receiving requests": Alison B. Alessios, "The Case for Recording—As a Librarian Sees It," Outlook, December 1947, 287

180  "never gets irritated": Don Crawford, "Recordings for College Students," Outlook, December 1947, 284

181  "pending the time when the Library of Congress": letter, Mildred C. Skinner to Charles H. Whittington, March 20, 1951

185  "the history of cooperation": letter, Evans to RBI, December 18, 1947

193  "There was a free afternoon": Robert Bray conversation with author, July 22, 1971

194  "We are touched that you found it possible": letter, Mamie Eisenhower to MRB, September 30, 1955

12. A Share in the General Welfare

197  "It is useless": holograph letter, MCM to RBI, February 20, 1935

198  "I was unable to find out": letter, RBI to Sinclair, July 26, 1935

199  "This assistance has improved": Outlook, October 1936, 151

199  "If those of us": Outlook, February 1937, 12

200  —Vivid illustrations of the initial affects: quotes in this section from "The Social Security Act and the Blind," Outlook, October 1936, 148–156

202  "If eye examinations and medical service": "Present Status of Work for the Blind in the United States," address at Reading, Pa., November 3, 1939

204  "In my travels": HK, testimony before the Kelley Committee, October 3, 1944

205  "As one of a large family": hearings, House Committee on Ways and Means, May 6–10, 1946, 1047

205  "what we are afraid of": ibid., 1077

205  "I think you are as good a friend": ibid., 1078

207  "Peter, … you people can walk out": PJS conversation with author, August 31, 1970

13. The Showcase of the Blind

212  "Work shapes a day": Henry Fairlee, "The Middle Class," McCall's, July 1970, 102

213  "employment of the blind side by side": RBI, Report of the Director of Research and Education, 1926, 4

215  "to strongly recommend that the federal government": quoted in Outlook, September 1927, 20

216  "the complete control of federal buildings": Conference on the Schall Bill (S.2819), November 18, 1930

216  "blind persons to sell papers": quoted in Outlook, February 1934, 4

216  "is to be confined to the selling of newspapers": Treasury Department Circular Letter No. 251, June 16, 1933

217  "the use of a chair or stool": letter, MCM to L. W. Robert, Jr., June 27, 1933

217  "to be appointed by the President": H.R. 5694, introduced May 19, 1933

217  "quite a champion of street beggars": memo, RBI to MCM, April 27, 1933

219  "with the full understanding that your Department": letter, MCM to Henry Morgenthau, Jr., December 12, 1934

219  "The Federal Government is spending billions": House Report No. 1095, 74th Congress, 1936, quoted in "Vending Stand Program for Blind Persons," mimeographed, AFB, 1957, 57–8

219  "This legislation would allow the setting up of stands": Senate Report No. 2052, 1936, quoted in ibid., 56–7

221  "It fell to me as a young newly-blinded man": "Influence of the Randolph-Sheppard Act on the Employment of Blind Persons," in Blindness 1966, 140

221  "To appeal to an employer": "Placement Work as a Business," Outlook, June 1930, 18

222  "There is nothing in our experience": quoted in Jennings Randolph, "The Story of the Randolph-Sheppard Act," Blindness, 1965, 5

223  "are usually better off financially": "Present Vending Stand Programs and the Outlook for the Future," AAWB proceedings, 1951, 116–122

224  "prohibit government employee welfare associations": Outlook, June 1951, 194

224  "The intent of Congress to give preference": Statement by Graham A. Barden at meeting on Vending Stands in Public Buildings, August 1, 1951—transcript in AFB files

225  "as a result of the action of the Secretary of Agriculture": Statement by MRB to Subcommittee on the Rehabilitation of the Handicapped, House Committee on Education and Labor, May 1954

226  —it was also in violation of two rulings: These were the Report of the Comptroller General of the United States to the Congress, August 10, 1949, B-45101, 32 Comp. Gen. 124; and Report of the Comptroller General to the Attorney General, August 29, 1952, B-111086, 32 Comp. Gen. 124

227  —S. 2461: introduced June 20, 1969

228  "Stealing from the Blind,": Marjorie Boyd, Washington Monthly, December 1972, 27–36

228  "The conferees are deeply concerned": quoted in AFB Washington Report, December 1972, 4–5

228  —An even more ominous development: "U.S. Plans a Curb on Blind Venders," New York Times, November 25, 1972

229  —The first instance of industrial placement: Irwin, 147–8

230  —His characteristic approach was illustrated: Herbert Yahraes, "They Are Happy Days," Collier's, April 22, 1950, 87

231  "Class instructors have observed": Charles R. Borchert, "Blind Trainees Succeed in Industry," Outlook, February 1967, 44–46

232  "husky fellow with the flashing teeth": Yahraes, op.cit., 17

14. The Workshops

233  "In this department the blind feel perfectly independent": 1841 annual report, Perkins, 14–15

234  "In some instances those entering the institutions": Irwin, 151–2

234  —A 1908 survey of the 16 workshops: "Industrial Establishments for the Blind in the United States," Outlook, July 1908, unpaged insert following 102

234  —Many years later a knowledgeable observer: PJS conversation with author, August 31, 1970

236  "work in cooperation with the American Foundation for the Blind": quoted in PJS, "Sheltered Workshops Under the NRA," Outlook, June 1934, 112

237  "charitable institutions …": Administrator's Order X-9, March 3, 1934, quoted in ibid., 114

237  "I don't think that the Foundation could possibly do": letter, PJS to MCM, March 15, 1937

237  "first we would like to secure": quoted in LeFevre, 6–7

239  —He alleged that workers for the blind: letter, Merle E. Frampton to Senator Burton K. Wheeler, March 11, 1938

239  —replied with a patient explanation: letter, RBI to Frampton, March 28, 1938

240  "all the economic functions": Frampton, "Socio-Economic Forces and Their Effect on the Social and Vocational Readjustments of the Visually Handicapped," AAWB proceedings, 1935, 237–248

241  "The Committee on Executive Department Expenditures": Irwin, 158

241  "Congressman Hamilton Fish," ibid., 160

242  "knew very little about the bill": ibid.

242  "—Many years later, Peter Salmon: 1970 Senate hearings, Handicapped Workers Legislation, 37

244  "an air of skepticism": LeFevre, 16

245  "the ability of blind workers to produce": ibid., 18

245  —In mid-1940 an Army order: memo, C. C. Kleber to MCM, August 12, 1940

246  —in pre-NIB days many a workshop: memo, C. C. Kleber to RBI, December 8, 1943

247  "Steps should be taken immediately": Proceedings of the Meeting of the Postwar Planning Committee, December 13, 1943, 7

247  "acceptable workshops for the blind": Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, Cooperative Relationship Memorandum No. 11, n.d., circulated with NIB Bulletin, June 22, 1945

249  —Still another change during the postwar years: "The Expanded Program of N.I.B.," Outlook, January 1951, 9–11

253  —the National Federation of the Blind initiated legislation: H.R. 9801; reported in "Hearings on Minimum Wage for Blind Workers," Outlook, October 1960, 275–279

253  —Passed in 1966 over vigorous opposition: Public Law 89-601, approved September 23, 1966

254  "more impressed with the oddity": The Seer, May 1937, 25

256  —Some witnesses at the Congressional hearings: Commissioner Edward Newman, Hearings, Amendments to the Wagner-O'Day Act, subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Operations, April 20–21, 1971, 25

15. The Magna Charta of the Blind

259  "[state agencies for the blind] feel that a system": AFB circular letter, "Important Legislation Affecting the Blind," September 16, 1942

259  —Companion bills to amend the Vocational Rehabilitation Act: H.R. 7484 (Barden bill) and S.2714 (LaFollette bill)

259  "It is my intention": letter, Paul V. McNutt to Senator Robert F. Wagner, February 9, 1943

261  —As a precautionary countermeasure: "Why Rehabilitation of the Blind Is a Function of a Special Agency for the Blind," enclosure to AFB circular letter, November 17, 1943 and reprinted in Outlook, December 1943, 275–6

261  —Five years after its enactment: Michael J. Shortley quoted in minutes of NIB General Workshop Committee, February 2, 1948, 18

261  "many people who have spent the greater part of their careers": "The Vocation Rehabilitation Act Related to the Blind," Journal of Rehabilitation, September/October 1970, 29

265  "the real challenge": Mary E. Switzer and Warren Bledsoe, "U.S. Government Sponsored Research to Study Blindness," Blindness 1964, 2

267  —When the Act was amended once again: Public Law 90-391

267  "pressured by the need to show": Testimony on HR 15827 and 16134 before the Subcommittee on Education, House Committee on Education, April 8, 1968, 11

268  "who have unusual and difficult problems": fact sheet, National Rehabilitation Association, quoted in Congressional Record, June 10, 1971, 5063

268  "that an elderly blind diabetic": statement to Select Subcommittee on Education, House Committee on Education and Labor, February 1, 1972

269  "When my sight went": Pierce, 41

270  —a 1969 survey showed: elementary and secondary school figures in Ewald B. Nyquist, "The Importance of Employing Blind Teachers in the Public Schools," Outlook, January 1971, 6; college and university figure estimate in letter, D.C. McFarland to author, April 26, 1972

271  —A law passed in 1948 forbade discrimination: Public Law 80-617, approved June 10, 1948

272  —The problem was solved in 1962: Public Law 87-614, approved August 29, 1962

16. The War-Blinded, World War I

273  "I will never be a blind man": quoted in Fraser, 27

274–75  —When the first actuarial survey was made in 1922: ibid., 190

276  "the Aladdin of the modern world": "Address Delivered at Evergreen January 15, 1919 by Sir Arthur Pearson," Outlook, Spring 1919, 21–30

276  —In 1924 the United States Veterans Bureau reported: untitled memo in AFB files, n.d., ca. 1946/7, citing figures received from Veterans Bureau

276  "The remainder of the 800 men": letter, S. M. Moore, Jr., to Helga Lende, October 14, 1942

277  —In two days of strenuous work: James Bordley, "Plans of the U.S. Government for Soldiers Blinded in Battle," Outlook, October 1917, 54–58

278  "in such subjects as reading and writing": ibid., 56

278  "that the Secretary of War was not inclined": quoted in Alan C. Woods, M.D., "The Story of the Red Cross Institute for the Blind," American Journal of Ophthalmology, October 1943, 1011–1024

279  —In France, for example: Harper, 22

279  —The British system also differentiated: Twersky (1947), 125

280  "A high school student sat next to a man": Alexander M. Witherspoon, "Eighteen Months at the Red Cross Institute for the Blind," Evergreen Review, September 1920, 78

281  —The Red Cross saw its overall function: "The Red Cross Institute for the Blind," pamphlet, n.d., reprinted in Outlook, July 1918, 35–41

282  "to do anything that would help": "Pointing the Way," pamphlet, n.d., 15

283  —More than half the men had had little formal education: 1920 annual report, Federal Board for Vocational Education, 394

284  "In one instance an agent of the Board": ibid., 395

285  —Smith-Fess Act: Public Law 66-236, approved June 2, 1920

285  —Vance, when he resigned: letter, Joseph E. Vance to MCM, December 7, 1922

286  "If we were to go into a war ten years from now": letter, RBI to James L. Fieser, May 13, 1925

17. The New Breed

288  —A public declaration to this effect: "Federal Aid Urged for War-Blinded," The New York Times, September 10, 1942

289  —The plan outlined a three-stage program: letter, RBI to Frank T. Hines, January 12, 1943, enclosing memorandum, n.d., "Suggestions for the Handling of the Problems Resulting from the War"

290  "We have complications": letter, RBI to Clutha Mackenzie, May 27, 1943

290  —In July 1943 the Office of the Surgeon General: "Rehabilitation of the Blind in Army Hospitals," n.d., enclosed with letter, Lt. Col. Malcolm J. Farrell to RBI, July 16, 1943

293  "a good substitute for an obstacle course": Twersky (1947), 72

293  "the thing on which he had come to place the most confidence": "Army Service Forces Old Farms Convalescent Hospital (Sp)," manuscript of speech, n.d., (author not given but probably Lt. William A. Jameson), 7

295  —A study made by Colonel Thorne: "A Statistical Review of 367 Blinded Service Men, World War II," American Journal of Ophthalmology, October 1946, reprinted in Outlook, May 1947, 129–136

295  "one of the greatest achievements": Colonel J. H. King, Jr., "Army Ophthalmology," Military Surgeon, February 1955

295  "that newly-blinded persons could learn to be blind": H. Kenneth Fitzgerald and J. Albert Asenjo, "Rehabilitation Centers—Their Growth and Development," Blindness 1965, 53

296  "visit our blind hospitals from time to time": letter, Lt. Col. M. E. Randolph to RBI, January 31, 1945

297  —Their offer was promptly accepted: letter, Omar Bradley to RBI, December 11, 1945

300  "Although this committee has been in existence": letter, RBI to Carl R. Gray, April 22, 1948

300  "I am only here some 100 days": letter, Carl R. Gray, Jr., to RBI, April 23, 1948

300  "straighten out this problem": letter, Gray to RBI, May 11, 1948

300  "selection of personnel": letter, RBI to Gray, May 20, 1948

301  "As an entirely civilian organization": letter, RBI to MCM, December 6, 1944

301  "I am not quite sure just what is needed": letter, RBI to Kathern Gruber, December 27, 1944

302  "the boys will need most of our services": letter, Kathern Gruber to H. V. Stirling, March 16, 1945

303  "about fifty times as much": letter, RBI to Barton, April 7, 1944

303  "hanging on to every ounce": letter, Rosalie F. Cohen to RBI, February 26, 1944

304  "It's hard work": letter, Polly Thomson to Ida Hirst-Gifford, November 28, 1944

304  "You are the most impressive": letter, W. R. Dear to HK, August 6, 1945

304  "To be permitted to kindle even one light": letter, HK to MCM, January 13, 1945

304  "gaiety carried me back to my girlhood": letter, HK to Colonel Hardaway, Bushnell General Hospital, February 5, 1945

306  —disability compensation rate for anatomical loss: 1945 figure, P.L. 182; 1954 figure, P.L. 695; 1972 figure, supplied to author by Douglas C. MacFarland

307  "should have been enough to make the most inveterate": Warren Bledsoe, "From Valley Forge to Hines: Truth Old Enough to Tell," Blindness 1969, 113

307  "Why all this fuss": confidential memo, PJS to RBI, August 8, 1947

307  "Carl Gray could not see": Paul B. Magnuson, Ring the Night Bell, Little Brown, 1960, 325–326

308  "sincere, healthy minded, emotionally balanced": quoted in John D. Malmazian, "The First 15 Years at Hines," Blindness 1970, 62

309  "There were numerous occasions": Malmazian, op.cit., 63

309  "an environmental therapy": "Facts About the Rehabilitation of the Blind at the Veterans Administration Hospital at Hines, Illinois," VA Fact Sheet No. 10-7, June 1950

311  —Kendrick's interest in war-blinded men: Baynard Kendrick, "Autobiographical Memoirs," Blindness 1970, 79 ff.

312  "There is no question about Kendrick's": letter, Thayer Hobson to RBI, December 10, 1945

313  "a flying wedge": quoted in BVA Bulletin, October 1946, 11

314  "quietly, without general appeal": BVA Bulletin, October 1948, 7

315  "The group is relatively well educated": p. 12–13

316  "a month before the veteran leaves": minutes, Conference on Blinded Veterans of the Vietnam Era, April 6–7, 1972, 49

317  "Instead of the respect and acclaim": letter, Belle McLure to R. L. Robinson, February 22, 1972

18. The Three-Wheeled Cart

319  "Our students are a most heterogenous group": Cholden, 33–34

321  "to conduct a campaign for the prevention": "The Re-Education of the Blind Adult," AAWB Proceedings, 1919, reprinted in Outlook, Summer 1919, 47–52

323  "it is to be doubted if any one code": "Standards of Requirements for Home Teachers," Outlook, April 1935, 67

325  "that professional home teaching embraces": "Home Teacher Certification Standards," Outlook, May 1960, 180–181

326  "misdirected many blind young people": "Home Teaching a Specialty," AAWB proceedings, 1951, 17

326  —Using a telephone console unit: Outlook, October 1968, 261

327  "The newly blind adult will always need someone": Juliet Bindt, "Modern Trends in the Education of the Adult Blind," Outlook, June 1953, 181

328  —A 1950 Foundation survey of 11 centers: AFB Bulletin, Social Research Series No. 1, July 1950

328  "The greatest variation in travel training": ibid., 16–17

329  "The student usually comes from a protected environment": ibid., 17–18

329  "the best and only authorities": Langerhans and Red Key, 10

330  —the amended Medical Facilities Survey and Construction Act: Public Law 83-482

331  —scrounged trucks: Henry A. Wood conversation with author, October 22, 1970

331  "It is difficult to tell a person": 664–675, reprinted in Bulletin of the Society of Military Ophthalmologists, September 1968

332  "the wrong kind of hope": Cholden, 25

332  —Addressing a conference of ophthalmologists: "When Prevention Fails—Then What?," address at joint conference of Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology and National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, March 27–31, 1950, reprinted in Outlook, June 1950, 159–164

332  "a period of mourning for his dead eyes": Cholden, 76–77

333  "learning to use the other gateways": Fraser, 95

333  "the language of the senses": The Open Door, 137

333  —computer-age thinking found expression: Emerson Foulke, "The Personality of the Blind: A Non-Valid Concept," Outlook, February 1972, 33–37

19. Mobility, Key to Independence

335  "The importance to every blind man": reprinted in Outlook, April 1949, 106–110

336  "the three great founding fathers": Berthold Lowenfeld, "Johann Wilhelm Klein: A Portrait," Blindness 1971, 229–231

337  "The newly blinded man taking his first steps": Chevigny, 52–53

337  "would not be caught using": letter, RBI to Robert I. Bramhall, April 6, 1928

338  "a dirty little cur": letter, RBI to Kate M. Foley, January 29, 1930

338  "the very index and essence": letter, Edward E. Allen to RBI, January 23, 1929

338  —it was estimated that close to 4,000 dogs: Dorothy Harrison Eustis, "Guide Dogs for the Blind," in Lende et al., 184

338  —French military authorities: P. Hachet-Souplet, "The Blind Soldier's Dog," Beacon (London), May 1918

338  —an article on the same subject: Eustis, "The Seeing Eye," Saturday Evening Post, November 5, 1927, 43–46

339  "overbred, overfed": Eustis, "Lead Dogs for the Blind," Outlook, March 1929, 16–19

340  "turn out 60 to 70 dogs": letter, Eustis to RBI, January 21, 1928

340  "As I see it": letter, RBI to Eustis, January 25, 1928

340  "If Massachusetts will undertake the job": letter, RBI to Bramhall, op. cit.

340  —the dog school in Potsdam had recently been in direct touch: letter, E. Liese, Ausbildungsstelle für Blindenführerhunde, to RBI, March 6, 1928

341  "The author well remembers": Irwin, 173

341  —he took the occasion to announce: "Blind Youth Travels 5,000 Miles with Dog," The New York Times, June 12, 1928

341  —challenging Humphrey's ability to teach dogs: letter, Potsdam school to AFB, January 30, 1929

341  "a mind that absorbs": Hartwell, 11

342  "55 men have started on the road": "The Guide Dog Movement" in Zahl, 369–370

342  "in Germany, a nation of dog lovers": op. cit. in Lende et al., 186

342  "wiry and as full of bounding energy": Frank and Clark, 71

345  "estimated current capacity is slightly in excess": Finestone et al., 31–32

346  "be able to demonstrate by actual blindfold test": California Business and Professional Code, Chapter 915, Statutes of 1947, Chapter 1249, Paragraph 1, p. 2760

346  —He was not even convinced: letter, RBI to Harold F. Warman, April 3, 1945

348  —An outline of the apprentice training program: Koestler, 249

349  —In the wake of this accident: AFB circular letter, January 15, 1936

349  —a policy statement that more or less reversed: MRB memo, "Official AFB Attitude and Policy Regarding the White Cane and Its Ramifications," April 20, 1961

350  —As a service to its readers: "Manual for Orientors," Outlook, December 1947, 271–279

350  "served chiefly to whet the appetites": Donald Blasch, "Orientation and Mobility Fans Out," Blindness 1971, 9

351  "The war blind at the outset": letter to editor, Outlook, June 1954, 201–203

351  "with the sensorium": memo in AFB files, "Mobility Technician," n.d. but internally identified as developed from conference of November 4, 1952

352  "the increasing recognition of the danger": letter, Thomas J. Carroll to Kathern F. Gruber, September 26, 1953

352  "the teaching of mobility was a task": "Standards for Mobility Instructors," 3

353  —Spokesmen for long-accepted professions: e.g., Herbert Rusalem, "The Dilemma in Training Mobility Instructors," Outlook, March 1960, 82–87

353  "give formal recognition to those": Koestler, 225

354  "become a fetish": Carl McCoy, letter to editor, Outlook, May 1969, 157

355  "Within reasonable limits, travel is safe": Outlook, February 1947, 37–38

355  "There seems to be a great feeling of need": memo, G. L. Abel to K. Gruber, June 9, 1953

356  —A statement subsequently issued by a dozen authorities: "Dog Guides and Blind Children," 1963, text reprinted in Koestler, 247–248

357  "I would like to encourage you": Paul A. Kolers in Proceedings of the Rotterdam Mobility Research Conference, 241

357  "I walk with my head": Arnold Auch, "Blindness and Travel," Outlook, October 1949, 213

20. The Watershed Years

358  —The ranks of its founders: Latimer died in 1944, White in 1934, Hamilton in 1941, Morgan in 1943, Lindsay in 1939, Miss Sherwin in 1938; Mrs. Gage retired from board in 1935 and died in 1948

361  —Under the mandatory staff retirement system: minutes, AFB executive committee, April 2, 1936

361  —persuaded the trustees to let him continue: minutes, AFB executive committee, April 26, 1948

362  —the committee had never seriously considered: conversation with author, January 12, 1973. The other members of the executive search committee were Ziegler, R. H. Migel, Salmon and Farrell

363  —the official photograph: frontispiece, Outlook, November 1949

367  —In 1959, ten years after Barnett took over: minutes, October 22, 1959, 66

370  —he insisted upon meeting the additional $30,000 cost: letter, RBI to trustees, January 30, 1935

371  "would add greatly to its stability": letter, MCM to HK, May 16, 1933

372  —But Helen had an opportunity to be as flowery as she liked: text of HK speech printed in Outlook, December 1935, 195

376  "been guilty in some instances of coasting": "Criteria and Standards of Services for the Blind," AAWB proceedings, 1953, 106–109

376  "a manual of useful criteria": E. A. Baker, Plan for the Preparation and Publication of a Manual of Useful Criteria and Standards for the Guidance of Agencies Serving the Blind, ibid., 109–110

377  "so-called agencies for the blind": "Report of Study Committee on Principles and Standards of Public Relations and Fund Raising for Agencies for the Blind," ibid., 142–146

377  —But no great rush to acquire the seal: Alfred Allen, "The Code of Ethics: An Appraisal," Outlook, November 1955, 317–320

378  —There was outright discrimination: Alexander F. Handel conversation with author, January 22, 1973

378  "to make sure that blind persons benefit": text reprinted in Outlook, November 1959, 330–333

378  "It is not our intention": Report of the President, AFB, October 26, 1961, 3

380  "Standards should be formulated": Koestler, 9

381  "the most significant advance": PJS, quoted in Outlook, January 1966, 4

381  "to reform it or destroy it": Braille Monitor, August 1972, 387

382  "We decry the efforts of one particular organization": letter, Lee W. Jones to Caspar W. Weinberger, January 2, 1973

383  "to the tasks of securing the required funding": "Moving Bio-Medical Research into the Marketplace" in Graham (1972), 178–184

21. Little Things That Make a Big Difference

386  "wartime inventions now held secret": 1943 annual report, AFB, 14–15

389  —There was a pleasing irony: Ritter, Clifford M. Witcher, Outlook, November 1956, 341–342

389  —A detailed letter: Witcher to Eugene F. Murphy, November 19, 1948; "another that he drafted": RBI to Murphy, January 17, 1949

390  "We have at last come to understand": memo, C. M. Witcher to C. H. Whittington, June 16, 1950

390  "What can the Government do": quoted in "Roosevelt Urges Peace Science Plan," New York Times, November 21, 1944

390  "get a high preference rating": letter, RBI to Vannevar Bush, November 24, 1944

391  "not separable from those of blindness in general": Zahl, foreword, x

391  "an instrument which is able to do something": George W. Corner, "The Committee on Sensory Devices," in Zahl, 438–439

392  —In the 25 years following termination of the CSD's projects: figures through 1964 from "U.S. Veterans Administration Research Concerning Blindness" in Blindness 1964, 48–54; additional data through 1972 supplied to author by Howard Freiberger, March 1973

392  —An estimate was made in 1968 that federal investment: Blindness and Services to the Blind in the United States, 104

393  "had one selenium cell": "The Optophone: Its Beginning and Development," Bulletin of Prosthetic Research, Spring 1966, 25–28

393  "the perversity of natural phenomena": "Research on Reading Machines for the Blind" in Zahl, 521

394  "culminated in the production of 10 copies": "Reading Machines for the Blind, the Veterans Administration, and the Non-Veteran Blind," VA document R-701204, December 4, 1970, 3

394  "can inspire tremendous and lasting affection": Toward an Improved Octophone—Experiments with a Musical Code, AFB Research Bulletin No. 16, 1968, 42

394  "The pace is slow": "Potential Uses of the Optophone," Bulletin of Prosthetics Research, Spring 1966, 32–36

394  —Lauer also taught the Visotoner: Research and Development in Aids for the Blind, VA document, October 1969, 4

395  "If you could print with vibratory pins": Interview with John Linvill, Stanford Engineering News, January 1970

397  —Far more sophisticated devices: Franklin S. Cooper and Patrick W. Nye, Plans for the Evaluation of a High-Performance Reading Machine for the Blind, National Academy of Sciences 1971, 57

398  "including even broadcast stations": "The Blind in the Age of Technology," Outlook, September 1970, 202

399  "made a more lasting impression": Robert E. Naumburg, "The Beginnings of the Visagraph," Outlook, September 1928, 22–23

400  "It was like having a continuously ringing": remarks at 1971 AAWB convention (author's notes)

402  "It is not enough to say that the cane": The VA-Bionic Laser Cane for the Blind, National Academy of Sciences 1972, 81

402  —one British experimenter reported: Walter Thornton, "The Binaural Sensor as a Mobility Aid," Outlook, December 1971, 324–326

402–03  "It would appear": "The Sonic Glasses Evaluated," Outlook, January 1973, 7–11

405  "stimulating and motivating universities": AAWB proceedings, 1959, 83

405  "The best research minds can be obtained": quoted in "Kay Gruber's Column," BVA Bulletin, May–June 1961, 10

406  "The Director of this Bureau happily announces": Director's Report of Activities, AFB, third quarter, 1959–1960, 22

406  —Among the many beneficiaries of this skill: James C. Bliss conversation with author, October 26, 1971

408  "You may be as enthusiastic as you please": quoted in "Telescopic Spectacles and Magnifiers as Aids to Poor Vision," Outlook, March 1926, 54

408  "a sort of miniature pair of opera glasses": letter, RBI to Ian Fraser, June 22, 1933

408  "found a number of instances in which ophthalmologists": letter, Harry J. Spar to A.B.C. Knudson, June 8, 1953

409  "that the possibility of designing better reading glasses": op. cit. in Zahl, 436

409  "insisted on ordering an assortment": "Optical Aids in Ophthalmology," AFB Enlightener, October 1954, 6

410  —On this basis, an agreement was reached in 1960: minutes, AFB executive committee, February 2, 1960, 75–6

411  "always remain high": Director's Report of Activities, AFB, first quarter, 1960/1961, 15

411  —(Irwin told people he conducted it as a sort of hobby): letter, RBI to Mary V. Hun, January 19, 1926

412  "Sometimes it seems no limit is in sight": "Some Thoughts on Large Type," Large Print Journal, April 1971, 3–4

413  "an electric conversation board": unsigned memo in AFB files, "Projects for Proposed Research Laboratory," n.d., ca. 1944

413  —a budget review showed a deficit: MRB, AAWB proceedings, 1960, 79

413  "whatever the cost to the agency": minutes, AFB executive committee, October 22, 1958, 61–62

414  —new postal regulations which expanded the free mailing: Public Law 90-26, December 16, 1967

415  —Graham and Clark reported in 1972: AFB Newsletter, Winter 1973

415  "The door is opening wider": Charles E. Hallenbeck, "Recent Research on Advanced Communications Aids for the Blind," Blindness 1970, 115

22. One World

416  "He had the world's greatest flair": A. J. Liebling, "After Repeal—the Good Old Days?," New York World-Telegram, October 28, 1933

416  —At one such event a Venetian theme was created: Alfred Harvey, "The Gondola Dinner," Cartons Mondains-Cir, Paris, September 1, 1905

417  —Kessler was also an extraordinarily lucky man: Eric T. Boulter conversation with author, September 22, 1970

417  —a piece cut from the Cullinan diamond: "Who's Who Abroad," Chicago Tribune European edition, January 17, 1926

418  —In rebuttal to the Holt charges: minutes, B.F.B. Permanent War Relief Fund, October 10, 1916; also circular letter, idem, March 23, 1917, and "Work in France of the American-British-French-Belgian Permanent Blind Relief War Fund Described in French Official Reports," Outlook, January 1918, 81–86

419  "the physician of Wall Street": quoted in Dean, 113

419  —He was a prime mover: Time, February 15, 1932, 23–24

419  "in Spartan living": Dean, 5

419  "To the end of his life": ibid., 115

419  "an impressive figure": foreword to Dean, ii

421  "there was a strong feeling in most quarters": "Report of the Joint AAWB-AAIB Committee on a World Conference of Workers for the Blind," AAWB proceedings, 1929, 183–185

421  —responded to a last-minute S.O.S.: letter, RBI to William Nelson Cromwell, December 9, 1935

423  "the sudden and extraordinary development of mechanical music": Lende et al., 161–162

424  "Massage, shampooing, acupuncture": ibid., 261

424  "The civilization of these countries": ibid., 264–265

424–25  "The first right of a blind person": ibid., 275

425  "unite simultaneously and ask for the recognition": ibid., 336–345

426  "Half of the gathering in New York": Campbell, 148

426  "By spring of 1935": Lacy, 34

427  "I had to comply": "Service for Overseas Blind," TBT, March 1946, 3

428  —Before the end of 1946, some 60,000 pounds: 1946 annual report, AFOB, 2

429  "We got massive sacks": conversation with author, September 14, 1970

429  "The blind are trying to help themselves": multigraphed typescript, n.d., ca. 1947, in AFOB files, 2

430  "These were from Macedonia": ibid., 3

433  —Between 1961 and 1971 the equivalent of $28 million: Martin E. McCavitt and Judith E. Turner, "Special Foreign Currency Program of the Social and Rehabilitation Service," Blindness 1971, 183–204

434  "Blind Poilus' Beacon Saved": quoted in Bloodgood, 149

434  "attired in costumes of blue crepe de chine": Boston Herald, quoted in Outlook, Summer 1922, 40–41

436  "1) Registration of all who fall within": New Beacon, London, September 1949, reprinted in Outlook, October 1949, 223–228

23. The Birthright of Every Child

438  "the monopoly of a privileged minority": "A Study of History," abridged, Oxford University Press, 1947, 292

439  "Here is Howe": this anecdote is related in many annual reports of the Perkins School for the Blind, e.g. 1971, 61

439  "a meeting of flint with steel": Richards (1935), 71

439  "Howe was without a preliminary training": French, 115

440  "a profound sorrow": Sizeranne, 58

441  —The lad had been a street beggar: Benjamin B. Huntoon, address to AAIB convention, 1910, reproduced in Outlook, Autumn 1910, 107 ff.

441  "much to admire and to copy": 1971 annual report, Perkins, 61

442  —a green ribbon was bound: that the color of the ribbon was green is mentioned in Dickens "American Notes"

444  "So persuasive was he that proper Bostonians": Story of Blindness, 63

444  —According to the version of this incident given by Anne: Braddy, 154–156

444  —Helen Keller's version: Midstream, 73

446  "the most decisive role": Lowenfeld, op. cit., 229–231

446  "an exotic": 1874 annual report, Perkins, 137–138

447  "want far more waiting upon": Report of the Royal Commission on the Blind, the Deaf and Dumb, etc. of the United Kingdom, minutes of evidence given 12 May 1886, 371. Published London, 1889

447  "huddled against the wall": Braddy, 58–59

448  "to pass upon the merits": "Edward Ellis Allen, D. Sc., An Appreciation," Outlook, June 1950, 151–156

448  "storm the castle": quoted in Edward E. Allen, "The Challenge of Sir Francis Campbell," TF, January 1932, 54

449  "almost superhuman persistence": letter to editor, TF, September 1932, 11–12

451  "perennial items of policy, practice and concern": "Chronicle of the American Association of Instructors of the Blind," Blindness 1972, 5

451  "appropriated large portions of the public lands": proceedings of the first convention, American Instructors of the Blind, 1853, 5

452  "I accept my full share of condemnation": Batavia address, September 6, 1866, published by Walker, Fuller & Co., Boston, 1866, 38

453  "The great advantages which may flow from it": letter, August 7, 1871, in AAIB proceedings, 1871, 13–20

454  "The reluctance of parents": The Mentor, September 1891, 267

454  "but the indifference of parents": ibid., 264–266

455  "located in a desirable part of the city": The Mentor, April 1891, 117

455  "an album bound in Turkish morocco": The Mentor, August 1891, 236

455  "more than 120 ophthalmic anomalies": "Some Experiences and a Prophecy Which Seem to Prove Wise and Right the Perkins Tradition of No Coeducation of Blind Boys and Blind Girls," TF, January 1939, 59–60

456  —By 1907 Curtis was able to report that Chicago had: "Education of the Blind in the Chicago Public Schools," Outlook, July 1907, 35–37

457  "a gentle, retiring man": letter, RBI to Kathern F. Gruber, September 12, 1939

457  "passed the period when the influence of the home": "Place of the Day School in the Work of the Blind," AAIB proceedings, 1910, 40–42

457  "Teachers have been expected to visit": "Coeducation of the Blind and the Seeing," Outlook, Summer 1916, 54

458  "It is no longer a question": "The Education of the Young Blind in Institutions versus in Schools with the Seeing—the Advantages and Disadvantages of Each," AAIB proceedings, 1910, 31–37

24. The Ever-Changing Children

461  "Cutting down on oxygen": quoted in Steven M. Spencer, "Mystery of the Blinded Babies," Saturday Evening Post, June 11, 1955, 19–21, 97–106

462  "the most important single clinical advancement": Pearce Bailey, "Clinical Success with Three Eye Conditions," Outlook, June 1955, 222

462  "Everyone wanted to turn the oxygen on": Dr. Loren P. Guy quoted in Spencer, op. cit., 101

462  "that most physicians lost interest": "Prematurity and Retrolental Fibroplasia," Sight-Saving Review, Spring 1969, 42–46

464  "One dilemma is the erecting of buildings": Outlook, October 1953, 229–230

466  "The janitor": Josephine L. Taylor in Abel, 44

467  "inadequate, erratic, costly and destructive": p. 14 of pamphlet

468  "very deficient in sensory": Cutsforth, 190

468  "the traditions and content of a visual development": ibid., p. 166

468  "ferociously frank": "Book News: A Sightless Scholar's View," Outlook, June 1933, 141–142

468  "the hypocrisy of verbalism": Cutsforth, 15

468  "robs the sensory world": ibid., p. 51

469  "realistic thinking, actual experience": Pine Brook Report, 8

472  "already in some of the southern states": letter, May 9, 1942

473  "trade on their handicaps as an excuse": "The Employment of Blind Teachers in Schools for the Blind," AAWB proceedings, 1949, 33–36

475  "we should have different standards for different mentalities": "The New Education and Its Relation to and Influence upon the Education of the Blind," AAIB proceedings, 1918, 5–11

475  "1. To develop and apply methods": Samuel P. Hayes, "The Work of the Department of Psychological Research at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, Overbrook," AAWB proceedings, 1919, reprinted in Outlook, April 1920, 5–8, 19–20

476  "The use in schools for the blind of standardized tests": Hayes, ibid., 19–20

476  "we must not let pupils write": "A Historical Review of Achievement Tests for the Blind," Outlook, December 1948, 300–304

477  "pupils test up to the seeing standards": "The Needs of the Blind Child in the Field of Educational Psychology" in proceedings, International Conference of Educators of Blind Youth, Bussum, Netherlands (1952), 179

477  "Psychologists and educators alike": Mary K. Bauman, "Psychological Testing and Blindness—a Retrospect," Blindness 1972, 192–193

479  "kept his heart from breaking": p. 151–157 of scrapbook in the possession of AFB Migel Memorial Library

479  "I did not tell them": ibid., 161–167

480  "the extreme desirability": letter, February 20, 1931

480  "that boards of trustees": AAWB proceedings, 1931, 78

483  "productive avenues of approach": "The Pre-School Blind Child: A Preliminary Study," TF, March 1934, 62–65

483  —The nation's first [such organization] came into being in Connecticut: For details of the Emily Welles Foster story, see Dorothea Simpson, "Light on Dark Paths," published 1971 by the Norwich (Conn.) Free Academy

485  "whether they have no sight": Olive McVickar, "A Nursery School for Children with Impaired Vision," TF, September 1939, 12–16

486  "blind individuals tended to make": Sommers, 103

486  "the accent should be on leaving the child in his family": Proceedings, National Conference on the Blind Preschool Child, 144–145

486  "clearly within the field of the residential school": "President's Report," AAIB proceedings, 1948, 9–13

487  "but the program in my estimation": "Some Necessary Steps in Organizing an Institution in a Residential School for the Blind for Mothers and Blind Babies," ibid., 34–38

487  "as a sort of clearing house": "An Open Letter to Educators in Schools and Classes for Blind Children," Outlook, November, 1950, 254–255

488  —one of the more authoritative sources estimated: John L. Sever, M.D., "Rubella Epidemiology and Vaccines," Sight-Saving Review, Summer 1967, 68–72

489  "In theory, none of us admits the feeble-minded": "President Burritt's Address: The Education of the Blind a Highly Complex Problem," AAIB proceedings, 1916, 8–14

489  "four feeble-minded children": "The Recognition and Training of Blind Feeble-Minded Children," Outlook, Summer 1915, 29–32

489  "The feeble-minded, whether deaf, blind": quoted in "A Place for the Blind Feeble-Minded: A Symposium," TF, May 1931, 8–11

490  "The simple educational activities": ibid., 10

490  "to effect some agreement": ibid., 11

491  "music, conversation and much love": "Helping the Retarded Blind," International Journal for the Education of the Blind, April 1953, 163–164

491  —A 1956 survey of New York State's: Cruickshank and Trippe, 189, 201, 209, 214

491  "small but growing corps": Director's Report of Activities, AFB, first quarter, 1962–3, 8

492  "conviction, love, patience": No Time to Lose, p. 44–45

492  "if special treatment and care": Anna S. Elonen and Margaret Polzien, "Experimental Program for Deviant Blind Children," Outlook, April 1965, 122–126

492  "a national problem that can only be met": Graham (1968), 3–4, 19, 22

492  "the multiply handicapped child is the challenge": The Blind Child Who Functions on a Retarded Level, 11–18

493  "Only the emotionally strong, well-prepared teacher": ibid., 44–49

494  "We have tried for years": "President Burritt's Address, etc.," op. cit., 12

495  "and the willingness of parents": quoted in NSPB Publication 149, "Education of Partially Seeing Children," 1952, 3

496  "from an organizational setup": "The New Constitution of the American Association of Instructors of the Blind," Outlook, February 1953, 47–48

498  —They spent three days hammering out a detailed plan: "Industrial Arts for Blind Students"

499  "placement and recycling": Harvey E. Wolfe, position paper prepared for National Task Force on Career Education, March 16, 1972

25. The Loneliest People

501  "What is it actually like": "Merlyn" (pseudonym), "Behind the Silent Facade," New Beacon (London), February 15, 1942, 17–20

502  "should not be abandoned": from an article by Howe in Barnard's, quoted in Howe and Richards, 38

503  "The process had been mechanical": 1840 annual report, Perkins, 26

503  "the truth began to flash upon her": ibid.

503  "She took hold of the thread": Howe, Batavia address, op. cit., 28

504  "did not deign to notice anything or anybody": quoted in Fish, 10

504  "I am going to treat Helen": HK, The Story of My Life, Magnum edition, 372–373

505  "The new scheme works splendidly": ibid., 373–374

505  "When I walk out in my garden": letter, November 27, 1889, ibid., 288

505  "I am sitting on the piazza": letter, August 7, 1889, ibid., 203–204

506  "the only one of their heroic undertakings": Braddy, 151

506  "That is not the sort of dog a blind child needs": quoted in "In Memoriam, William Wade," Outlook, Autumn 1913, 47–48

506  "He met us at the train in Pittsburgh": ibid.

507  "The Education of a Girl, etc.": Outlook, June 1926, 12–16

508  —This was made known a few years later: "Without Sight or Hearing," Outlook, December 1930, 24–26

508  "instead of employing a teacher for each pupil": Children of the Silent Night, 32

508  —In 1927 a Montreal publisher: "Hors de Sa Prison " (Arbour & Dupont)

508  "Her body was clad": Sherman C. Swift, "Book News," Outlook, December 1928, 59–62

509  —a long article by Miss Rocheleau: "The Deaf-Blind in America," Outlook, September 1928, 14–19

509  "to cooperate with a like committee": AAIB proceedings, 1928, 440

510  "No plan of education for the deaf-blind": AAWB proceedings, 1929, 159

511  —The Foundation thereupon opened negotiations: Outlook, March 1932, 1–2

511  —The upshot was the Foundation's decision: letter, RBI to H. M. McManaway, January 17, 1933

512  "plodding pursuit of knowledge": quoted in Braddy, 176

512  "I pity them more than I blame them": quoted in ibid., 177

513  "The education of the blind-deaf": Wade, first edition, preface

513  —he wrote Helen that he had, in fact: letter, June 23, 1901

513  "… in the 'Monograph' ": letter, June 28, 1901

514  "there was no mystery": letter of February 20, 1904, reprinted in Wade, second edition, 65

514  "dangerous nonsense": Wade, second edition, 8

514  "I have never thought that I deserve": Address to Educational Institute of Scotland, September 27, 1932

514  "The only thing": Wade, second edition, 8

514  "his benefactions to deaf-blind children": Association Review, December 1904, 431

515  "Mrs. Macy's stand on the subject of other teachers": letter, December 2, 1931

515  "unfriendly spirit": letter, HK to Rebecca Mack, January 21, 1932

515  "have all proved their capabilities": text quoted in press release, Industrial Home for the Blind, June 27, 1945

516  "now, in the autumn of her life": letter, MCM to Ziegler, August 13, 1945

521  "One thing to be kept in mind always": PJS, "The Deaf-Blind," in Zahl, 231–232

522  "fear among the deaf-blind": AAWB proceedings, 1958, 26–28

522  "The true failure": PJS, 52

523  "no riot or sit-in": letter, PJS to Congressman Hugh L. Carey, June 12, 1968

524  "She could carry on a conversation": Sophia Alcorn, "Development of the Tadoma Method for the Deaf Blind," Journal of Exceptional Children, January 1945, 117–119

529  "Perhaps the real miracle": Outlook, April 1966, 108

26. Open Channels

531  "I saw your communication": quoted in pamphlet, "The Story of the Ziegler Magazine," adapted from 50th anniversary issue of the Ziegler, March 1957

531  "Mrs. Ziegler said that she had always wanted": quoted in id.

532  "you have a chimney corner": Outlook, September 1927, 13

532  "we know enough of that from experience": quoted by Holmes in op. cit., 53. He was paraphrasing what HK wrote Mrs. Ziegler, when the forthcoming magazine was announced: "Several of the [existing magazines for the blind] devote too much space to our afflictions, of which we already know enough by experience." November 14, 1906

535  "I would rather do what you are doing": letter from physician in Lancaster, Ohio, contained in binder of 1927 anniversary letters in the possession of the Ziegler Magazine.

537  "active synthesizing agent": French, 253–254

538  "You people here, the Instructors": AAIB proceedings, 1912, 33

538  "even if the magazine is reduced": letter, CFFC to Edward E. Allen, April 30, 1912

540  "Essentially a promoter": Latimer, 169–170

540  "wherever he went, he started things moving": "Memories of Charles F. F. Campbell," Outlook, February 1936, 7

541  "only with the Campbells who had passed on": letter, RBI to HRL, January 13, 1936

542  —Latimer did not take kindly: letter, HRL to RBI, January 14, 1936

542  "The photographs in your article": letter, RBI to HRL, March 16, 1936

543  "success story of a blind dog": Outlook, December 1928, 40

544  "The New Outlook for the Blind shall be a vehicle": p. 4

546  "advertising be limited": minutes, February 25, 1923, 84

550  "absolutely did not know": letter, CFFC to RBI, January 20, 1928, in Box 31 of Sir Francis Campbell papers in Library of Congress collection

551  "She was not an easy person": comment by PJS in conversation with author, August 31, 1970

552  "is the luxury of the giver": Chevigny, 222

552  "I doubt if any organization in America": letter, HK to W. G. Holmes, February 21, 1935

553  "All members present generally agreed": minutes, April 8, 1952, 122

27. The Road Ahead

560  "A Bill to Protect etc.": S. 2411, introduced June 27, 1957

560  "tremendous leverage": Jacobus ten Broek quoted in Outlook, September 1957, 321

560  "embodies a completely unsound": AAWB proceedings, 1957, 81–82

561  "the oppression of the social worker": 1940 letter, "To the Blind of the Nation," quoted in Perry Sundquist, "The First Thirty Years," Council Bulletin, California Council of the Blind, November/December 1970, 18–26

561  "be given an equal chance": "A Bill of Rights for the Blind," Outlook, December 1948, 310–314

562  "internal strife and chaos": quoted in Raymond Parsons, "NFB Convention," Outlook, November 1961, 307

564  "We in the United States": Lucy Wright address at Massachusetts State Conference of Charities, October 20, 1908, reprinted Outlook, October 1908, 118

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