The Unseen Minority: A Social History of Blindness in the United States


In addition to the sources listed below, references to specific magazine articles, book chapters, etc. can be found in the Chapter Notes. To conserve space, the American Foundation for the Blind, publisher of much of the professional literature on blindness, is identified by its initials.

Abel, Georgie Lee, ed. Concerning the Education of Blind Children. AFB, 1959.
Adams, Samuel Hopkins. A. Woollcott, His Life and His World. Reynal & Hitchcock, 1945.
Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday. Harper, 1931.
Allied Health Careers for Blind and Visually Handicapped Persons: A Workshop Report. AFB, 1972.
American Association of Instructors of the Blind. Proceedings, biennial, 1871 ff.
American Association of Workers for the Blind. Proceedings, biennial, 1907 through 1971.
American Foundation for the Blind. Annual reports, 1924 through 1972.
American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.: Its History, Purposes and Policies. 1966.
———. Annual reports, 1966 through 1972.
Attitudes Toward Blindness. AFB Social Research Series No. 1, 1951.
Bell, Donald, ed. An Experiment in Education: the History of Worcester College for the Blind. London: Hutchinson & Company, 1967.
Best, Harry. The Blind. Macmillan, 1919.
Bindt, Juliet. A Handbook for the Blind. Macmillan, 1952.
The Blind Child Who Functions on a Retarded Level. Proceedings of Regional Institute, Austin, Texas. AFB, 1969.
Blind Workers in U.S. Industries. Washington: National Society for the Blind, 1943.
Blindness and Services to the Blind in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Organization for Social and Technical Innovation, Inc. (OSTI), 1971.
Blindness. Annual, 1964 through 1972. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Workers for the Blind.
Bloodgood, Edith Holt, ed. First Lady of the Lighthouse: A Biography of Winifred Holt Mather. New York Association for the Blind, 1952.
Braddy, Nella. Anne Sullivan Macy: The Story Behind Helen Keller. Doubleday, Doran, 1933.
Campbell, Marjorie Wilkins. No Compromise: The Story of Colonel Baker and the C.N.I.B. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1965.
Carroll, Thomas J. Blindness: What It Is, What It Does, and How to Live with It. Little, Brown, 1961.
Chevigny, Hector. My Eyes Have a Cold Nose. Yale University Press, 1946.
——— and Braverman, Sydell. The Adjustment of the Blind. Yale University Press, 1950.
Cholden, Louis S. A Psychiatrist Works with Blindness. AFB, 1958.
Clark, Leslie L., ed. Proceedings of the International Congress on Technology and Blindness. 4 vols. AFB, 1963.
The CNIB Story, 1918–1968. Toronto: Canadian National Institute for the Blind, 1968.
Conference of Administrators of Rehabilitation Centers for Blind Persons. AFB, 1961.
Cosgrove, Elizabeth. Home Teachers of the Adult Blind. Washington: American Association of Workers for the Blind, 1961.
Cruickshank, William M. and Trippe, Matthew J. Services to Blind Children in New York State. Syracuse University Press, 1959.
Curtis, Scott; Donlon, Edward T. and Wagner, Elizabeth, eds. Deaf-Blind Children: A Program for Evaluating Their Multiple Handicaps. AFB, 1970.
Cutsforth, Thomas D. The Blind in School and Society. Appleton, 1933. Republished, AFB, 1951.
Dean, Arthur H. William Nelson Cromwell, 1854–1948: An American Pioneer in Corporation, Comparative and International Law. Privately printed, 1957.
Dickman, Irving R. Living with Blindness. New York: Public Affairs Committee, 1972.
———, ed. Sex Education and Family Life for Visually Handicapped Children and Youth: A Resource Guide. New York: Sex Information and Education Council of the United States and AFB, 1972.
———. What Can We Do About Limited Vision? New York: Public Affairs Committee, 1973.
Dinsmore, Annette B. History of Deaf-Blind Services at the American Foundation for the Blind. Unpublished manuscript. AFB, 1970.
———. Methods of Communication with Deaf-Blind People. AFB, 1959.
Directory of Agencies Serving the Visually Handicapped in the United States. Biennial, 1965 through 1971, AFB.
Dufton, Richard, ed. Proceedings of the International Conference on Sensory Devices for the Blind. London: St. Dunstan's, 1966.
Edwards, Frank. Strange People. Lyle Stuart, 1961.
851 Blinded Veterans: A Success Story. AFB, 1968.
Farrell, Gabriel, Children of the Silent Night. Watertown, Mass.: Perkins School for the Blind, 1956.
———. The Story of Blindness. Harvard University Press, 1956.
Fifty Years of Vocational Rehabilitation in the U.S.A., 1920–1970. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social and Rehabilitation Service, 1970.
Finestone, Samuel, ed. Social Casework and Blindness. AFB, 1960.
———, Lukoff, Irving F. and Whiteman, Martin. The Demand for Dog Guides and the Travel Adjustment of Blind Persons. New York: Research Center, New York School of Social Work, Columbia University, 1960.
———. Guide Dog Training for Blind Persons. Research Center, New York School of Social Work, Columbia University, 1957.
Fish, Anna Gardner. Perkins Institution and Its Deaf-Blind Pupils. Watertown, Mass.: Perkins Institution, 1934.
Fitting, Edward A. Evaluation of Adjustment to Blindness. AFB, 1954.
Frampton, Merle E. and Kerney, Ellen. The Residential School. New York Institute for the Education of the Blind, 1953.
Frank, Morris and Clark, Blake. First Lady of the Seeing Eye. Henry Holt, 1957.
Fraser of Lonsdale, Baron. My Story of St. Dunstan's. London: George G. Harrap, 1961.
French, Richard Slayton. From Homer to Helen Keller: A Social and Educational Study of the Blind. AFB, 1932.
Frick, Kathryne Mary. "In the Dark Alone." Atlantic Monthly, April 1930; "Groping in the Dark," ibid., May 1930; "Light at Last," ibid., June 1930.
Goldish, Louis Harvey. Braille in the United States: Its Production, Distribution and Use. AFB, 1967.
Gowman, Alan G. The War Blind in American Social Structure. AFB, 1957.
Graham, Milton D. The Deaf-Blind: Some Studies and Suggestions for a National Program. AFB, 1970.
———. Multiply Impaired Blind Children: A National Problem. AFB, n.d., ca. 1968.
———, ed. Science and Blindness: Retrospective and Prospective. AFB, 1972.
Griffin, Donald R. Listening in the Dark. Yale University Press, 1958.
Gruber, Kathern F. and Moor, Pauline M. No Place to Go: A Symposium. AFB, 1963.
——— and Voorhees, Arthur L., eds. The Grove Park Report: Principles Underlying Nonmedical Vocational and Rehabilitation Preparation Services for Blind Persons. AFB, 1961.
Harley, Randall K., Jr., Verbalism Among Blind Children. AFB, 1963.
Harper, Grace S. Vocational Re-Education for War Cripples in France. Washington: American National Red Cross, 1918.
Hartwell, Dickson. Dogs Against Darkness. Dodd Mead, 1942.
Haycraft, Howard. Books for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Fourth edition, revised. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1972.
Helms, Arthur. Tape Recording Books for the Blind. AFB, 1962.
Hendrickson, Walter B. Frank H. Hall and His Braille Writer. Jacksonville, Ill.: Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School, 1968.
Howe, S.G. and Richards, Laura. Laura Bridgman. Privately printed, Boston, 1903.
IHB Optical Aids Service Survey. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Industrial Home for the Blind, 1957.
Industrial Arts for Blind Students: Report of a Conference on Principles and Standards. AFB, 1960.
Instruction in Physical Orientation and Foot Travel for Deaf-Blind Persons. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Industrial Home for the Blind, 1966.
International Catalog, Aids and Appliances for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons. AFB, 1973.
Irwin, Robert B. As I Saw It. AFB, 1955.
Itinerant Teaching Service for Blind Children: Proceedings of a National Work Session. AFB, 1957.
Josephson, Eric. The Social Life of Blind People. AFB, 1968.
Kaufman, Beatrice and Hennessey, Joseph, eds. The Letters of Alexander Woollcott. Viking, 1944.
Keller, Helen. Midstream, My Later Life. Doubleday, Doran, 1929.
———. The Open Door. Doubleday, 1957.
———. The Story of My Life. Century, 1904. Magnum Easy Eye edition, Lancer Books, 1968.
———. Teacher: Anne Sullivan Macy: A Tribute by the Fosterchild of Her Mind. Doubleday, 1955.
Kendrick, Baynard. Lights Out. Morrow, 1945.
Kerby, C. E. Blindness in Preschool Children. New York: National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, 1954.
Kim, Yoon Hough. The Community of the Blind: Applying the Theory of Community Formation. AFB, 1970.
Koestler, Frances A., ed. The COMSTAC Report: Standard for Strengthened Services. New York: Commission on Standards and Accreditation of Services for the Blind, 1966.
Lacy, Bernard. An International Adventure: A Brief History of the American Foundation for Overseas Blind, 1915–1965. New York: AFOB, 1965.
Langerhans, Clara and Redkey, Henry, eds. Adjustment Centers for the Blind: Findings of the Spring Mill Conference. AFB, n.d., ca. 1951.
Latimer, Henry Randolph. The Conquest of Blindness. AFB, 1937.
LeFevre, Robert. The Story of the Wagner-O'Day Act. New York: National Industries for the Blind, 1966.
Leighton, Isabel, ed. The Aspirin Age. Simon and Schuster, 1949.
Lende, Helga. Books About the Blind. AFB, 1940. Revised edition, 1953.
———. Federal Legislation Concerning Blind Persons in the United States and Insular Possessions. AFB, 1952.
———, ed. What of the Blind? AFB, Vol. 1, 1938; Vol. 2, 1941.
———, McKay, Evelyn C. and Swift, Sherman C., eds. Proceedings of the World Conference on Work for the Blind. AFB, 1931.
Library of Congress. Annual reports, 1934 through 1970.
Linsner, James W., ed. Proceedings of the Mobility Research Conference. AFB, 1962.
Lowenfeld, Berthold, ed. The Blind Preschool Child. AFB, 1947.
———. Our Blind Children. Second edition. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1964.
———, ed. The Visually Handicapped Child in School. John Day, 1973.
———, Abel, Georgie Lee and Harlen, Philip H. Blind Children Learn to Read. Charles C Thomas, 1969.
Lukoff, Irving Faber and Whiteman, Martin. The Social Sources of Adjustment to Blindness. AFB, n.d., ca. 1972.
Lydon, William T. and McGraw, M. Loretta. Concept Development for Visually Handicapped Children. AFB, 1973.
McAulay, John H. Vocational Schools as Training Facilities for Blind Workers. AFB, 1954.
McMurtrie, Douglas C., ed. Abstract-Catalogue of Literature on the War Blinded. Baltimore: Red Cross Institute for the Blind, 1919.
The Mentor. Monthly, 1891–1894. Alumni Association, Perkins Institution for the Blind.
The Middletown Lighthouse for the Blind: A Survey. AFB, 1957.
Monbeck, Michael E. The Meaning of Blindness. Indiana University Press, 1973.
Moor, Pauline M. A Blind Child, Too, Can Go to Nursery School. AFB, 1962.
———. No Time to Lose. AFB, 1968.
National Academy of Sciences, Evaluation of Sensory Aids for the Visually Handicapped. 1972.
———. Sensory Aids for the Blind. 1968.
National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped. Annual Reports, 1969, 1970, 1971.
National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, Annual Report, 1973.
New Outlook for the Blind. Monthly, 1951 through 1972.
New York State Department of Social Welfare, Commission for the Blind. 1913/Now.
Norris, Miriam. The School Age Blind Child Project. AFB, 1961.
Outlook for the Blind. Quarterly, 1907–1923; bi-monthly, 1924–1933; monthly, 1942–1950. Name changed to New Outlook, 1951.
Pierce, Robinson. It Was Not My Own Idea. AFB, 1944.
The Pine Brook Report: National Work Session on the Education of the Blind with the Sighted. AFB, 1954.
Proceedings of the Conference on New Approaches to the Evaluation of Blind Persons. AFB, 1970.
Proceedings of the Conference on Nine-Dot Braille. AFB, 1964.
Proceedings, National Conference on the Blind Preschool Child. AFB, Group Reports No. 1, 1951.
Proceedings of the Research Conference on Geriatric Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment. AFB, 1968.
Proceedings of the Rotterdam Mobility Research Conference. International Research Information Service, AFB, 1965.
Redkey, Henry. Descriptions of Nine Adjustment Centers. Washington, D.C.: Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, HEW, 1951.
Rehabilitation Centers for Blind Persons. Report of Seminar, New Orleans, La., February 1956. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of HEW, n.d.
Rehabilitation of Deaf-Blind Persons, Vol. 1: A Manual for Professional Workers. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Industrial Home for the Blind, 1958.
Report of the Commission to Investigate the Condition of the Adult Blind in the State of New York. Albany, N.Y.: State Legislative Printer, 1904.
Report of the National Citizens Advisory Committee on Vocational Rehabilitation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.
Report of the National Study Committee on Education of Deaf-Blind Children. Watertown, Mass.: Perkins Institution for the Blind, 1954.
Report on Visual Impairment Services Teams. Washington, D.C.: Veterans Administration, 1971.
Richards, Laura E. Laura Bridgman: The Story of an Opened Door. Appleton, 1928.
———. Samuel Gridley Howe. Appleton-Century, 1935.
———, ed. Letters and Journals of Samuel Gridley Howe. Boston: Dana Estes, 1909.
Ritter, Charles G. Technical Research and Blindness. AFB, 1956.
Robinson, Robert L., ed. Blinded Veterans of the Vietnam Era. AFB, 1973.
Roblin, Jean. The Reading Fingers: Life of Louis Braille, 1809–1852. Translated from the French by Ruth G. Mandalian. Revised edition. AFB, 1955.
Rocheleau, Corinne and Mack, Rebecca. Those in the Dark Silence. Washington, D.C.: Volta Bureau, 1930.
Rodenberg, Louis W. The Story of Embossed Books for the Blind. AFB, 1955.
Ross, Ishbel. Journey into Light. Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1951.
Rusalem, Herbert. Coping with the Unseen Environment. New York: Teachers College Press, 1972.
——— et al. New Frontiers for Research on Deaf-Blindness. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Industrial Home for the Blind, 1966.
Rutherford, John. Dr. W. Moon and His Work for the Blind. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1898.
Salaries for Selected Occupations in Services for the Blind, January, 1966. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1966.
Salmon, Peter J. Out of the Shadows. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, 1970.
Scott, Robert A. The Making of Blind Men. Russell Sage Foundation, 1969.
The Seeing Eye. Annual Reports, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972.
Sizeranne, Maurice de la. The Blind as Seen through Blind Eyes. Translated from the French by F. Park Lewis. Putnam, 1893.
Sommers, Vita Stein. The Influence of Parental Attitudes and Social Environment on the Personality Development of the Adolescent Blind. AFB, 1944.
Snowman, Daniel. America Since 1920. Harper, 1970.
Standards for Mobility Instructors. AFB, 1962.
A Step-by-Step Guide to Personal Management for Blind Persons. AFB, 1970.
Teachers Forum. Bi-monthly, 1928–1941.
Terkel, Studs. Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression. Pantheon, 1970.
Thomas, Mary G. Thomas Rhodes Armitage. London: National Institute for the Blind, n.d.
The Training and Placement of Blind Persons in Service Jobs in Hospital Settings. AFB, 1970.
Twersky, Jacob. The American War-Blind as Aided by the Federal Government. Unpublished manuscript, 1947.
———. Blindness in Literature. AFB, 1955.
Wade, William. The Blind Deaf. First edition, 1901; revised edition, 1904. Privately printed.
Westrate, Edwin J. Beacon in the Night: The Story of J. Robert Atkinson. Vantage, 1964.
Wood, Maxine. Blindness—Ability, Not Disability. New York: Public Affairs Committee, 1968.
Zahl, Paul A., ed. Blindness: Modern Approaches to the Unseen Environment. Princeton University Press, 1950. Reprinted with updated bibliography. Hafner, 1962.

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