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September-October 1996  Volume 90  Number 5

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Contents

ARTICLES

Aging

Visual Function and Visual Acuity in an Urban Adult Population--print edition page(s) 367-377

J. Katz, J.M. Tielsch

Abstract: In this survey, 6,850 Baltimore residents aged 40 and older were interviewed about activities they had difficulty doing or could no longer do because of poor vision. One-fourth of the sample reported limitations in activities, most frequently reading and other near-vision tasks, because of poor vision. In addition to poor vision, general health status, educational level, and time since the last eye care visit were associated with the loss of visual function.

Audio Description

Evaluating Visual Information Provided by Audio Description--print edition page(s) 378-385

E. Peli, E.M. Fine, A.T. Labianca

Abstract: Short segments of two TV programs without audio description (AD) were presented to 25 subjects with low vision and 24 subjects with normal vision, and 29 additional subjects heard only the standard audio portions. The subjects then answered questions based on the visual information contained in the AD of the programs. The subjects with normal vision performed the best, followed by those with low vision and those who heard only the audio portion; all performed at better than chance levels. The results indicate that although AD may provide information on visual details to visually impaired audiences, some of the information in the AD may be obtained from the standard audio portion.

Children

Knowledge of Basic Concepts of Young Students with Visual Impairments Who Are Monolingual or Bilingual--print edition page(s) 386-399

M. Milian

Abstract: This article reports the findings of a study on the possible differences in the knowledge of basic concepts by young visually impaired students in two groups: 10 who were monolingual in English and 10 who were bilingual in English and Spanish. Although no significant differences were found in the two groups' knowledge of basic concepts, there was a significant correlation between the students' levels of vision and their scores on the Tactile Test of Basic Concepts in English. However, the mean scores of the two groups on this test indicated an advantage only for the monolingual group.

Meaningful Participation in Early Childhood General Education Using Natural Supports--print edition page(s) 400-411

E.J. Erwin

Abstract: This qualitative study used participant observation and semistructured interviews to examine the types of natural support that were provided and the adaptive strategies used to promote the inclusion of Ryan, a 3 year old with a visual impairment, in a community-based preschool. It found that the adults and classmates gave Ryan natural support in a variety of ways and that Ryan used distinctive adaptive strategies to carry out tasks independently.

Students with Visual Impairments: Do They Understand Their Disability?--print edition page(s) 412-422

S.Z. Sacks, A.L. Corn

Abstract: This study explored what children know about their visual impairments, how they communicate the information to other people, and their questions about their visual impairments. Eighty-nine children, aged 6-16, from 19 states completed a 35-item questionnaire that was administered by their teachers of students with visual impairments. Among the study's findings were that only 34 percent of the children could name their visual impairment and only 13 percent could state which part of their eye (or visual system) was affected.

Blind and Sighted Children with Their Mothers: The Development of Discourse Skills--print edition page(s) 423-436

L.S. Kekelis, P.M. Prinz

Abstract: This study examined the effects of blindness on the conversational patterns of families and on the development of discourse skills, assessing children's ability to respond contingently to questions and directives. The conversations of four mothers and their blind and sighted children, aged 27-36 months, were analyzed during three play sessions in their homes. During the seven-month study, conversational parameters that included the length of speakers' turns, balance between partners' contributions, and mothers' use of questions and directives were investigated. Conversational analyses revealed that the average lengths of speaking turns of the sighted children and their mothers were comparable, but those of the blind children were considerably shorter than their mothers' turns.

DEPARTMENTS

Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 363-363

Comment--print edition page(s) 364-366

Letter--print edition page(s) 438-438

Research Notes--print edition page(s) 438-450

Book Review--print edition page(s) 451-452

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 452-456

Classified--print edition page(s) 456-456

NEWS SERVICE

IN THIS ISSUE

Information Update

Specialized Services in Jeopardy--print edition page(s) 1-4

Random Access--print edition page(s) 4-6

Product Evaluation

A Review of Two Low-CostClosed-Circuit Television Systems: The Big Picture and the Magni-Cam--print edition page(s) 6-10

R. Shen, M.M. Uslan

Around the World--print edition page(s) 10-12

Comment

Sighted People in America: A Parody--print edition page(s) 12-15

J.L. Brackman, C.A. Handy

Book Review

How Late It Was, How Late--print edition page(s) 15-17

Reviewed by D. Kent

Management Update

Phone Cards with Blindness Themes: A New Collectible and Tool for Nonprofits--print edition page(s) 17-19

K.A. Stuckey

Calendar--print edition page(s) 17-19

News--print edition page(s) 23-30


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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.

 

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