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November-December 1996  Volume 90  Number 6

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Contents

ARTICLES

Technology

The Evolution of Video Magnification Technology--print edition page(s) 465-478

M.M. Uslan, R. Shen, Y. Shragai

Abstract: Closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems are the product of a long line of technological advances in several fields, including optics, electrical signal processing, and video display technology. Many different models are now on the market, and more advanced ones are frequently introduced. This article traces the development of early CCTV systems, examines CCTVs that are on the market today, and speculates on video magnification technology of the future, which will make extensive use of computer-related technology.

Employment

Satisfaction of Direct Labor Workers Who Are Blind and Employed in Industries for the Blind--print edition page(s) 479-485

A. Crudden, J.E. Moore, J.M. Giesen

Abstract: This article reports on a 1994 survey of the levels of satisfaction of 502 direct-labor workers who were employed in industries affiliated with National Industries for the Blind. The survey found that the majority (61%) reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their current placements. Levels of satisfaction were lower for those with higher levels of education and those employed more than five years.

Low Vision

A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test--print edition page(s) 486-494

G.R. Watson, V. Wright, S. Long, W. De l'Aune

Abstract: The Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) uses an 18-sentence cloze format in two equivalent forms to measure understanding of print reading by persons with macular degeneration. It requires nine minutes to administer and thus can be used in clinical settings. This article describes its development and a study of the reliability and validity of the LVRCA tested on 50 persons with macular degeneration.

Exercise

Peak Aerobic Fitness of Visually Impaired and Sighted Adolescent Girls--print edition page(s) 495-500

C.A. Williams, N. Armstrong, N. Eves, A. Faulkner

Abstract: This study compared the aerobic fitness of 10 visually impaired and 10 sighted girls who performed a discontinuous incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. It found that there was no significant difference between the peak oxygen intake of the two groups. The results indicate that visually impaired children can attain aerobic fitness levels similar to those of sighted children.

Early Intervention

Do Mothers Interact Differently with Children Who Are Visually Impaired?--print edition page(s) 501-511

D.D. Behl, J.F. Akers, G.C. Boyce, M.J. Taylor

Abstract: This study compared the interaction behaviors of mothers of young children with visual impairments to those of mothers of mildly delayed children with normal sight in a free-play setting using videotapes of mother-child dyads. The children were matched according to chronological age, as well as developmental age. It was found that the mothers of children with visual impairments were more physically involved with their children, used more controlling strategies, and spoke more to them than did the mothers of fully sighted children.

Detectable Warnings

Detectable Warning Surfaces at Curb Ramps--print edition page(s) 512-525

J.S. Hauger, J.C. Rigby, M. Safewright, W.J. McAuley

Abstract: Tests of blind pedestrians' need for detectable warning surfaces at curb ramps found that curb ramps were involved in half the cases in which there were barriers to successful crossings. In the absence of cues, some experienced travelers entered intersections at perpendicular curb ramps or were misdirected by diagonal curb ramps into parallel streets. Detectable warning surfaces provide a cue that alleviates the first problem but can exacerbate the second. Equally effective surfaces may be found that provide sufficient cues but are less expensive and easier to maintain.

Tactile Maps

The Ability of Visually Impaired Children to Locate Themselves on a Tactile Map--print edition page(s) 526-535

S. Ungar, M. Blades, C. Spencer

Abstract: This experiment investigated self-location by 26 visually impaired children using a large layout of landmarks, through which the children walked each of a number of routes holding a tactile map that was aligned or rotated relative to the layout. The children pointed to their position on the map as they walked along a route. On the majority of trials, the children correctly traced the route they walked and worked out their position on the map. Although the type of route (those with unique, clear landmarks versus those with nonunique, ambiguous landmarks) and the use of a strategy affected performance, the alignment of maps did not.

DEPARTMENTS

Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 459-459

Point/Counterpoint--print edition page(s) 460-463

Around the World--print edition page(s) 536-542

Research Note--print edition page(s) 542-547

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 548-551

Classified--print edition page(s) 552-552

NEWS SERVICE

IN THIS ISSUE

Information Update

Blindness Community Responds to Media Attacks--print edition page(s) 1-4

S.J. Spungin

Around the World--print edition page(s) 4-8

Book Review

You Don't Have To Be Blind To See--print edition page(s) 8-11

Reviewed by D. Kent

Random Access--print edition page(s) 11-12

Management Update

The Crossroads: Focusing on Customers in Job Placement--print edition page(s) 12-15

F. Coco

Product Evaluation

A Review of Two Speech Synthesizer Cards for Portable Computers--print edition page(s) 15-18

J.C. Perez

Calendar--print edition page(s) 19-21

News--print edition page(s) 21-31


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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.

 

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