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January-February 1997  Volume 91  Number 1

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Low Vision

Distribution of Print Sizes in U.S. Newspapers--print edition page(s) 9-13

L.M. DeMarco, R.W. Massof

Abstract: In this study, the authors measured the print sizes in 10 sections of over 100 U.S. newspapers and found that within a newspaper, the print sizes among sections may vary by more than a factor of 2 and that among newspapers, the print size of a single section may vary by a factor of more than 1.5. These findings challenge the assumption that newspapers use a standard print size and thus that persons with low vision can read all newspapers with magnifiers that are appropriate for reading 1 M print (1.45mm). The authors also give guidelines for low vision specialists in recommending magnification.


Essential Experiences to Undergird the Early Development of Literacy--print edition page(s) 14-24

A.J. Koenig, C. Farrenkopf

Abstract: This study identified a repertoire of essential early life experiences to which young children with visual impairments need to be exposed to undergird their development of literacy. The authors analyzed 254 stories from three published basal literacy series to identify the experiences necessary to bring meaning to each story. Through analysis and categorization of the data, they then identified 22 global areas of experience as essential. Guidelines for providing these experiences are suggested, including ways to link experiences to early literacy events.

Object Permanence, Reaching, and Locomotion in Infants Who Are Blind--print edition page(s) 25-32

S. Ross, M.J. Tobin

Abstract: This article reviews research and other work that suggests that congenital total blindness during infancy retards motor functions, most notably reaching for sound-making stimuli. Since there is a correlation between when infants who are blind begin to reach for rattles, bells, and the like and when sighted infants search for hidden toys in Piagetian experiments, it has been argued that for sound cues alone to elicit reaching, infants must first develop an object concept. Problems with this formulation are highlighted, and an alternative explanation is proposed that suggests possible interventions to redress the effects of congenital blindness on development.

Sleep Problems of Young Blind Children--print edition page(s) 33-39

J.A. Mindell, C.M. De Marco

Abstract: This study investigated the sleep of 28 young blind and 22 sighted children aged 4-36 months whose parents completed the Sleep Habits Questionnaire. It found that the blind children had significantly more sleep problems related to bedtime and behaviors during the night than did the sighted children. In addition, the blind children went to sleep later at night, were awake longer during the night, and had less sleep time.

The Effect of Visual Impairment on the Strength of Children's Hip and Knee Extensors--print edition page(s) 40-46

L. Wyatt, G.Y. Ng

Abstract: A test of the strength of children's hip and knee extensors found that children who were congenitally blind or had low vision had weaker knee extensors than did sighted children, but that after the correction for lean body weight (LBW), these differences were not significant. The children who were blind or had low vision also had weaker hip extensors, but after LBW correction, only the blind children's hip extensors were weaker than those of the children with normal vision. The findings indicate that congenitally blind children may be prone to develop weak leg extensors because of poor body build or the constraints of blindness and that they require extensive physical intervention during infancy.

Orientation and Mobility

Efficacy of the Touch Technique for Surface and Foot-Placement Preview--print edition page(s) 47-52

S.J. LaGrow, B.B. Blasch, W. De l'Acne

Abstract: Seven orientation and mobility specialists were videotaped simultaneously on three stationary cameras while traveling with long canes. The cameras were calibrated to allow for the exact determination of the relative position of the various body and cane parts as the travelers passed through the coordinated focal point. Input from the videotapes was digitized and entered on a computer to provide continuous traces of movement. A visual analysis of the traces indicated that the cane tip consistently touched outside the foot (and therefore did not provide foot-placement preview) and that surface preview was inconsistent.

Ambulation, Object Manipulation, and Multiple Disabilities: Extending the Applicability of a Robot--print edition page(s) 53-60

G.E. Lancioni, D. Oliva, M.F. O'Reilly

Abstract: This study further tested the applicability of a robot with people with severe multiple disabilities. The robot was used to help two adults with blindness, deafness, motor disabilities, and low functioning levels ambulate and transport objects and enable them to reach a couch on which they could sit and put away the objects. Both adults learned to use the robot, succeeded in transporting and putting away objects, and achieved robot-assisted ambulation times of about 31 minutes per session.

Tactile Maps

Tactile Maps: New Materials and Improved Designs--print edition page(s) 61-65

B. Horsfall

Abstract: This article evaluates the relative strengths of different ways to make tactile maps, including new photopolymers (plastics that harden with exposure to light) and computer-assisted design (CAD). Photopolymers yield crisp and precise images and produce excellent masters for vacuum forming maps. CAD allows for quick design and proofreading and the easy modification of images and text. High-quality tactile maps can be easily produced and refined by almost anyone using this technology.


Profiles of On-the-Job Accommodations Needed by Professional Employees Who Are Blind--print edition page(s) 66-76

P.D. Rumrill, B.R. Schuyler, J.C. Longden

Abstract: This article presents five case studies of professional employees who are blind and the postemployment accommodations they needed in four areas: worksite accessibility, performance of essential job functions, job mastery, and job satisfaction. It also describes the Work Experience Survey, a practical assessment instrument that can be used to engage employees who are visually impaired or blind in identifying and removing barriers to maintaining and advancing their careers.


Identification of Characters with Shared Representations: Decoding Musical and Literary Braille--print edition page(s) 77-86

A.S. Boyer

Abstract: This study investigated the degree to which code switching was operative in the performances of skilled and less skilled readers of musical and literary braille on two tasks that required the identification of characters shared by the two codes in the auditory and tactile modalities. In both modalities, skilled readers were significantly faster and more accurate than less skilled readers. The results suggest that the less skilled readers' inferior performances on tasks of code switching may have been due to inefficient verbal processing.


Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 3-3

Letter--print edition page(s) 4-4

Research Note--print edition page(s) 87-88

Around the World--print edition page(s) 89-92

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 93-94

Classified--print edition page(s) 94-95



Around the World

Volunteers Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired in the Israel Defense Forces--print edition page(s) 1-4

N. Neustadt


"Molly Sweeney," A Play in Two Acts--print edition page(s) 4-6

Reviewed by D. Kent

Random Access--print edition page(s) 7-12

Survey Report

Accessing Microsoft Windows with Synthetic Speech: A User Survey--print edition page(s) 12-16

J.D. Leventhal, C.L. Earl

Product Evaluation

A Review of Acrontech's Elite Series of Closed-Circuit Television Systems--print edition page(s) 16-21

R. Shen, M.M. Uslan

Calendar--print edition page(s) 21-24

News--print edition page(s) 24-32









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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


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New! Orientation and Mobility Techniques, Second Edition

Foundations of Education, Third Edition

College Bound: A Guide for Students with Visual Impairments, 2nd Edition