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Responsibilities of Colleges and Universities to Provide Print Access for Students with Visual Impairments--print edition page(s) 269-275

J.C. Senge, J. Dote-Kwan

Abstract: This article reviews the legislation related to the accessibility of information in colleges and universities. On the basis of statements and letters of findings from the U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, it discusses the responsibilities of colleges and universities in this area.

Increasing Reading Fluency in Elementary Students with Low Vision through Repeated Readings--print edition page(s) 276-292

C.A. Layton, A.J. Koenig

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore a user-friendly method to increase the reading fluency of four elementary students with low vision. An analysis of the effects of repeated readings on the students' reading rates, error rates, and comprehension found that the intervention was successful in improving all four students' reading fluency and did not adversely affect their error rates or comprehension. The results from generalized readings indicated that the students' improved reading rates were generalized to classroom reading.

The Effect of the Home Environment on the Reading Achievement of Children with Low Vision--print edition page(s) 293-301

S.W. Leffert, R.M. Jackson

Abstract: This study examined the reading achievement of 49 children with low vision and the contribution of the home environment to their reading. It found that the children with no books at home read less well than those who had books at home and that no other home variables were related to reading achievement. Despite the lack of evidence of a relationship between the home environment and reading achievement, observations indicated that practices in most homes supported the acquisition of literacy.

The Use of Technology in Programs for Students with Visual Impairments in Florida--print edition page(s) 302-312

B.J. Edwards, S. Lewis

Abstract: Teachers of students with visual impairments in Florida were surveyed to determine their use of various types of access technologies. Each category of device, with the exception of refreshable braille devices, was used by at least 25 percent of the teachers. The majority stated that they were not familiar with most of the devices listed and had difficulty acquiring the training needed to learn devices well enough to teach the students to use them. On the basis of these findings, recommendations for preservice and in-service training are suggested.

The Effects on Visually Impaired Children of Viewing Fluorescent Stimuli under Black-Light Conditions--print edition page(s) 313-321

S.J. LaGrow, J-P Leung, S. Leung, P. Yeung

Abstract: In this study, 30 children with low vision (divided into a high and a low visual acuity group) were presented with stimuli under four conditions (white stimuli-white light, orange stimuli-white light, white stimuli-black light, and orange stimuli-black light) and were asked to rank their preferences for the four conditions. The goal was to determine the effects of the various combinations of stimuli and lighting on the children's visual performance. The orange stimuli viewed under black light resulted in the best performance overall, benefited the low-acuity group more than the high-acuity group, and was the most-preferred condition for both groups.


How Blind Readers Perceive and Gather Information Written in Braille--print edition page(s) 322-330

C. Simón, J.A. Huertas

Abstract: This study examined how readers who are blind perceive and retrieve written information and investigated the strategies they used to compensate for their limitations. It found that expert braille readers are not limited to the isolated identification of individual braille characters that are later integrated, but can integrate greater quantities of written information, which indicates that braille reading is a more dynamic and integrated process than has previously been thought.

Braille Communication Skills: What Teachers Teach and Visually Impaired Adults Use--print edition page(s) 331-337

C.B. Allman

Abstract: The study reported here investigated which braille-related communication skills 233 teachers of students with visual impairments taught and 531 adults who are visually impaired used. It found that the teachers taught the use of braillewriters, computers, audiocassette recorders, and typewriters but rarely taught the use of slates and styli and sighted readers' services. The visually impaired adults used a variety of communication modes, primarily braillewriters, slates and styli, sighted readers' services, and sighted writers' services.

Tactile Maps

Using Tactile Maps to Improve the Practical Spatial Knowledge of Adults Who Are Blind--print edition page(s) 338-345

M.A. Espinosa, E. Ochaíta

Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of three instructional methods--direct experience, cartographic representation, and verbal description--on the spatial knowledge of 30 adults who are blind. During four sessions, the participants learned a large, complex route in Madrid that included eight landmarks. In the first session, the experimenter guided the participants along the route, and in the subsequent sessions, the participants guided the experimenter. The results showed that the participants' practical spatial knowledge was better when they learned the route with a tactile map than in either of the two other conditions.


Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 259-259

IMC 9--print edition page(s) 260-268

Practice Note--print edition page(s) 346-349

Research Notes--print edition page(s) 349-375

Book Review--print edition page(s) 376-380

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 380-384





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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


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