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Employment

Employment Outcomes and Educational Backgrounds of Legally Blind Adults Employed in Sheltered Industrial Settings--print edition page(s) 740-747

Cara Kim Fireison and J. Elton Moore

Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between type of school attended and postemployment outcomes (braille literacy, gross salary, job satisfaction, and work preference) of 270 legally blind adults who were employed in 24 industries associated with National Industries for the Blind. Those who attended specialized schools for blind persons made significantly less money than did those who attended public schools. However, a significantly greater proportion of persons who attended specialized schools (72.2%) could read braille than could those who attended either public schools (19.7%) or a combination of types of schools (46.6%).

Low Vision

Geriatric Low Vision Referrals by Ophthalmologists in a Senior Health Center--print edition page(s) 748-753

Laura Pankow and Daniel Luchins

Abstract: A review of the records of 307 ophthalmology patients at a senior health center found that of the 47 patients who were deemed appropriate for referral to the low vision clinic, only 13 were actually referred. This finding indicates that ophthalmologists, as well as other physicians, were underutilizing the low vision services that are available to their patients at the center. This article describes the study and discusses the criteria to consider in referring geriatric patients for visual rehabilitation services.

Social Skills

Social Cognition in Children with Visual Impairments--print edition page(s) 754-768

Linda Pring, Hazel Dewart, and Margaret Brockbank

Abstract: This article reports on a study of children's understanding of the intentions of characters in a series of stories, found in previous research to be impaired in children with autism but here investigated in 16 children with visual impairment and 16 sighted children. The children with visual impairment gave fewer correct justifications based on mental states than did the sighted children. A small subgroup, identified on the basis of their cognitive style on a reading task and predominantly children with congenital visual impairment, showed the most difficulty on this social cognition task.

Personal-Space Preference among Male Elementary and High School Students with and without Visual Impairments--print edition page(s) 769-782

Susan B. Eaton, Lynn S. Fuchs, and Mary-Maureen Snook-Hill

Abstract: This study compared three types of personal-space preference (PSP)--Initial PSP, Approach PSP, and Stop-Distance PSP--of male elementary and high school students in talking with an adult female conversation partner in a natural conversation setting. The boys were divided into three groups: boys with severe visual impairments, sighted boys who were blindfolded, and sighted boys with no visual restrictions. The visually impaired boys and the sighted, blindfolded boys chose smaller Initial PSPs, but on Approach PSP and Stop-Distance PSP, all three groups performed comparably.

Deaf-Blindness

Deaf-Blindness and Communication: Practical Knowledge and Strategies--print edition page(s) 783-798

Melissa Darrow Engleman, Harold C. Griffin, and Linda Wheeler

Abstract: This article reviews interventions for helping children who are deaf-blind acquire and use communication skills. It focuses on children whose hearing and vision loss are so great that traditional methods of communication training are the least accessible to them.

Memory

Do Children with Visual Impairments Demonstrate Superior Short-term Memory, Memory Strategies, and Metamemory?--print edition page(s) 799-811

Shirley R. Wyver and Roslyn Markham

Abstract: This study compared the memory processes underpinning the performance of 19 children with visual impairments and 19 sighted children on the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. No evidence was found to support earlier claims of the superior performance of children with visual impairments on any tasks of the subtest or of the children's greater awareness of memory processes.

Concept Development

Knowledge of Concept Prototypes of Students Who Are Blind or Have Low Vision--print edition page(s) 812-822

Mary Ellen Zeppuhar and Richard T. Walls

Abstract: In this study, 37 students who were blind or had low vision listed as many members (examples) of 10 categories (concepts) as they could. The prototype order of the examples they listed was scored according to norms developed by Rosch. The students who were blind or had low vision did not differ in their scores, but the older students (aged 13-21) produced more members and more members in correct prototype order than did the younger students (aged 6-12). Categories with which the students had a greater degree of direct sensory experience produced more members and higher prototype-order scores.

DEPARTMENTS

Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 738-739

Random Access--print edition page(s) 823-826

Book Review--print edition page(s) 826-828

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 828-831

Classified--print edition page(s) 831-832


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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.

 

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