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Health Care

Moving Vision-related Rehabilitation into the U.S. Health Care Mainstream--print edition page(s) 107-116

L. Lidoff

Abstract: Little public funding is available in the United States for vision-related rehabilitation services to restore the independent functioning of people who do not have an explicit vocational goal. This problem especially affects older adults, who constitute a large majority of the population experiencing severe vision loss. Some service providers have begun to find ways to have Medicare and other health insurance plans, which pay for rehabilitation for many other functional impairments, cover vision-related rehabilitation in some cases. This article discusses the history of coverage of vision-related rehabilitation by health insurance and identifies opportunities for expanded coverage within the rapidly changing health care environment.


Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Rehabilitation Outcomes for Adults Who Are Visually Impaired--print edition page(s) 117-130

J.E. Crews, R.G. Long

Abstract: This article defines some of the conceptual and methodological issues in creating outcome measures in vision rehabilitation. It proposes a model to describe rehabilitation outcomes in the context of organizational activities and discusses such methodological problems as the clarification and measurement of goals, aggregation of data, self-report and observational data, scaling, frequency of measurements, and causal events.


Impact of Early Experiences on the Development of Young Children with Visual Impairments: Revisited--print edition page(s) 131-144

J. Dote-Kwan, M. Hughes, S.L. Taylor

Abstract: This study examined the influence of several variables (maternal behaviors, home environment, and family's socioeconomic status) on the development of young visually impaired children. Specifically, 15 mother-child dyads were observed in their homes during daily routines at two points in time: when the children were aged 20-36 months and about one year later. Overall, the study found that maternal behaviors had more of an impact on the children's development at Time 1 than did the other variables, but at Time 2, the home environment appeared to have a greater influence.

Nielsen's Little Room: Its Use with a Young Blind and Physically Disabled Girl--print edition page(s) 145-150

J. Dunnett

Abstract: Recent investigations of remedies for the extreme passivity shown by some blind children with other impairments have been undertaken by the Danish teacher-therapist Lilli Nielsen. This article presents an account of the use of one of Nielsen's pieces of equipment with a totally blind child who, at age 3, was showing no sign of independent spontaneous movement while at nursery school.

Body Image

Body Experiences of Persons Who Are Congenitally Blind: A Phenomenological-Psychological Study--print edition page(s) 151-160

J. Bullington, G. Karlsson

Abstract: The aim of this qualitative-interpretive, phenomenological-psychological study was to discover the essential dimensions (distinctive features) of the body experiences of congenitally blind people. The information was obtained through semistructured interviews, consisting of open-ended questions, to which the subjects could reply freely and at length. Of the various forms of body experiences mentioned in the interviews, three are discussed in this article: the functional body, the objectified body, and the identity-creating body.

Tactile Maps

Teaching Visually Impaired Children to Make Distance Judgments from a Tactile Map--print edition page(s) 163-174

S. Ungar, M. Blades, C. Spencer

Abstract: This article reports on two experiments that investigated 59 children's ability to estimate distances from a map. In Experiment 1, totally blind children, children with residual vision, and sighted children were given a map showing the position of three objects on a path, two of which were present on the actual path. The children were asked to use the map to work out the position of the third object. The visually impaired children performed less well than did the sighted children, and an analysis of the children's strategies indicated that the majority of visually impaired children did not know an effective way to work out distances from the map. In Experiment 2, the visually impaired children were given a brief training in how to calculate distances from a map and then they were retested. After training, the children's performance improved.

A Code for Reducing Figure-Ground Ambiguities in Tactile Graphics--print edition page(s) 175-182

J.S. Campbell

Abstract: This article describes a code that could facilitate the interpretation of tactile outline graphics by reducing potential ambiguities in figure-ground, slope, and curvature. An experiment tested the ability of six blind adults to learn the code quickly, locate and identify all symbols tactilely, and use the code to match embossed drawings to complex models that were designed to present line-referent ambiguities. All the subjects learned the code in less than two hours and successfully matched coded graphics to targeted objects.


Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 99-100

Letters--print edition page(s) 101-103

Letters--print edition page(s) 103-106

Comment--print edition page(s) 183-185

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 186-189

Classified--print edition page(s) 190-190



Around the World--print edition page(s) 1-7

Book Review

Biography of the Blind: Lives of All Who Have Distinguished Themselves As Poets, Philosophers, Artists, etc.--print edition page(s) 7-9

Reviewed by D. Kent

Random Access--print edition page(s) 9-10

Product Evaluation

A Review of Xerox's Outlook Closed-Circuit Television System--print edition page(s) 10-13

M.M. Uslan, M. Lin

Calendar--print edition page(s) 13-18

News--print edition page(s) 18-32










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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


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