The international peer-reviewed journal of record in the field
of vision loss
J.N. Erin, B. Jager, M. Underwood
Abstract: The study reported in this article explored the responses of individuals who were being served by an agency for adults with visual impairments to the increasing inclusion of people with developmental disabilities in addition to visual impairments in the agency's activities. Qualitative approaches, including observations, interviews, and a focus group, revealed frequent examples of problem-solving, and a survey administered to 24 participants found widely diverse attitudes.
W.P. Marley, J.M. Beverly-Mullins
Abstract: This article presents a case study of a 25-year-old man who is legally blind with retinitis pigmentosa, Type I diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a lipid disorder. He was placed in a one-year, supervised, multifactorial fitness program that included exercise training, nutritional counseling, and diabetes education. Improvements in physical fitness, body composition, glucose control, hypertension, and normal lipid maintenance were observed as a result. Thus, this study provided an opportunity to observe the value of structured exercise and related proactive strategies for a motivated blind person with multiple medical disorders.
Orientation and Mobility
L.N. Gitlin, J. Mount, W. Lucas, L.C. Weirich, L. Gramberg
Abstract: This study investigated the musculoskeletal consequences of using travel aids, particularly white canes and dog guides, as perceived by 21 individuals, aged 27 to 68 years, who are visually impaired or blind. These individuals experienced a variety of negative physical effects that they either denied, ignored, or minimized because of the fundamental biophysical, psychological, and social benefits derived from being independently mobile and because of the need to attend to environmental cues to ensure safe travel. The implications of these findings for mobility training and future research are discussed.
R.M. Kitchin, R.D. Jacobson
Abstract: This article is an assessment of a variety of techniques used by researchers in the fields of geography, psychology, urban planning, and cognitive science to collect and analyze data on how people with visual impairment or blindness learn, understand, and think about geographic space. The authors concluded that these techniques and their results need to be used cautiously. They also made recommendations for increasing the validity of future studies, including the use of multiple, mutually supportive tests; larger sample sizes, and movement from the laboratory to real-world environments.
C. Kirchner, G. Johnson, D. Harkins
Abstract: This study identified factors that lead to or impede competitive job placements for clients of a state blindness rehabilitation agency. The authors conducted focus groups with the agency's service providers and administered surveys to adults who are blind or visually impaired and to employers. The survey data analysis compared persons who were employed with persons who were not employed but were interested in working and with persons who were not working and were not interested in working. Also identified were services that employers felt would assist them in hiring or retaining blind or visually impaired workers. Five themes, stated in terms of needs for the agency to address, are presented to summarize the findings.
Testing and Performance
D. Grenier, N. Giroux
Abstract: This study compared the spelling competency of 7 functonally blind braille-reading students with that of 180 sighted students using conventional print. The students were all attending regular high school classes, grades 9 to 11, within the province of Quebec, Canada. A 100-word dictation was given to these students and then analyzed for mistakes in both grammar and usage. The results indicated a significant gap in the spelling competency between the two groups. The functionally blind students were significantly ahead of their sighted peers. These students made less than half the number of usage mistakes than did their sighted peers. The most important gap involves grammatical spelling, again in the favor of the functionally blind students.
S. L. Recchia
Abstract: Infants and young children who are severely visually impaired from birth show consistent delays in concept development, compared to their sighted peers. This article focuses on the impact of severe visual impairment on the development of those play skills that facilitate concept development and discusses the ways in which intervention can enhance play experiences for infants and young children with severe visual impairments.
IN THIS ISSUE
Reviewed by D. Kent
Y. Shragai, M.M. Uslan, M. Lin
The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
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