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Adult Inclusion

Participants' Attitudes about the Integration of Developmentally Disabled People at a Center for Adults with Visual Impairments--print edition page(s) 325-340

J.N. Erin, B. Jager, M. Underwood

Abstract: The study reported in this article explored the responses of individuals who were being served by an agency for adults with visual impairments to the increasing inclusion of people with developmental disabilities in addition to visual impairments in the agency's activities. Qualitative approaches, including observations, interviews, and a focus group, revealed frequent examples of problem-solving, and a survey administered to 24 participants found widely diverse attitudes.

Physical Fitness

The Value of Physical Fitness for a Young Man Who Is Visually Impaired with Multiple Medical Disorders--print edition page(s) 341-346

W.P. Marley, J.M. Beverly-Mullins

Abstract: This article presents a case study of a 25-year-old man who is legally blind with retinitis pigmentosa, Type I diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a lipid disorder. He was placed in a one-year, supervised, multifactorial fitness program that included exercise training, nutritional counseling, and diabetes education. Improvements in physical fitness, body composition, glucose control, hypertension, and normal lipid maintenance were observed as a result. Thus, this study provided an opportunity to observe the value of structured exercise and related proactive strategies for a motivated blind person with multiple medical disorders.

Orientation and Mobility

The Physical Costs and Psychosocial Benefits of Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired or Blind--print edition page(s) 347-359

L.N. Gitlin, J. Mount, W. Lucas, L.C. Weirich, L. Gramberg

Abstract: This study investigated the musculoskeletal consequences of using travel aids, particularly white canes and dog guides, as perceived by 21 individuals, aged 27 to 68 years, who are visually impaired or blind. These individuals experienced a variety of negative physical effects that they either denied, ignored, or minimized because of the fundamental biophysical, psychological, and social benefits derived from being independently mobile and because of the need to attend to environmental cues to ensure safe travel. The implications of these findings for mobility training and future research are discussed.

Techniques to Collect and Analyze the Cognitive Map Knowledge of Persons with Visual Impairment or Blindness: Issues of Validity--print edition page(s) 360-376

R.M. Kitchin, R.D. Jacobson

Abstract: This article is an assessment of a variety of techniques used by researchers in the fields of geography, psychology, urban planning, and cognitive science to collect and analyze data on how people with visual impairment or blindness learn, understand, and think about geographic space. The authors concluded that these techniques and their results need to be used cautiously. They also made recommendations for increasing the validity of future studies, including the use of multiple, mutually supportive tests; larger sample sizes, and movement from the laboratory to real-world environments.


Research to Improve Vocational Rehabilitation: Employment Barriers and Strategies for Clients Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired--print edition page(s) 377-392

C. Kirchner, G. Johnson, D. Harkins

Abstract: This study identified factors that lead to or impede competitive job placements for clients of a state blindness rehabilitation agency. The authors conducted focus groups with the agency's service providers and administered surveys to adults who are blind or visually impaired and to employers. The survey data analysis compared persons who were employed with persons who were not employed but were interested in working and with persons who were not working and were not interested in working. Also identified were services that employers felt would assist them in hiring or retaining blind or visually impaired workers. Five themes, stated in terms of needs for the agency to address, are presented to summarize the findings.

Testing and Performance

A Comparative Study of Spelling Performance of Sighted and Blind Students in Senior High School--print edition page(s) 393-400

D. Grenier, N. Giroux

Abstract: This study compared the spelling competency of 7 functonally blind braille-reading students with that of 180 sighted students using conventional print. The students were all attending regular high school classes, grades 9 to 11, within the province of Quebec, Canada. A 100-word dictation was given to these students and then analyzed for mistakes in both grammar and usage. The results indicated a significant gap in the spelling competency between the two groups. The functionally blind students were significantly ahead of their sighted peers. These students made less than half the number of usage mistakes than did their sighted peers. The most important gap involves grammatical spelling, again in the favor of the functionally blind students.


Play and Concept Development in Infants and Young Children with Severe Visual Impairments: A Constructivist View--print edition page(s) 401-406

S. L. Recchia

Abstract: Infants and young children who are severely visually impaired from birth show consistent delays in concept development, compared to their sighted peers. This article focuses on the impact of severe visual impairment on the development of those play skills that facilitate concept development and discusses the ways in which intervention can enhance play experiences for infants and young children with severe visual impairments.


Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 323-323

Research Note--print edition page(s) 407-410

Around the World--print edition page(s) 410-413

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 413-414

Classified--print edition page(s) 414-416



Information Update

Position Statement on Specialized Services--print edition page(s) 1-4

S.J. Spungin

Management Update

The Key to Successful School-to-Work Programs for Blind or Visually Impaired Students--print edition page(s) 5-7

K. Wolffe

Book Review

Images That Injure: Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media--print edition page(s) 7-10

Reviewed by D. Kent

Product Evaluation

A Review of Two Special-Purpose Screen Magnification Programs for Older Computers--print edition page(s) 10-13

Y. Shragai, M.M. Uslan, M. Lin

Random Access--print edition page(s) 13-14

Around the World--print edition page(s) 14-17

Calendar--print edition page(s) 17-23

News--print edition page(s) 23-32









Entire Issue (in HTML)

The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


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