Skip to Content

September-October 1997  Volume 91  Number 5

Subscribe Now | Log In


Home  >  JVIB



Low Vision

The Role of Education and Rehabilitation Specialists in the Comprehensive Low Vision Care Process--print edition page(s) 423-434

A.H. Lueck

Abstract: Within the framework of the comprehensive low vision care process, the overall goals of education and rehabilitation specialists are to maximize the specific skills, self-esteem, and quality of life of individuals with low vision. These specialists are involved in evaluating functional vision, teaching methods to compensate for impaired vision, and addressing psychosocial concerns to meet the needs of individuals in their homes, workplaces, schools, and communities.

Orientation and Mobility

The Use of Traffic Sounds to Make Street Crossings by Persons Who Are Visually Impaired--print edition page(s) 435-445

W.R. Wiener, G. Lawson, K. Naghshineh, J. Brown, A. Bischoff, A. Toth

Abstract: Orientation and mobility O&M specialists are concerned with the ability of a person who is visually impaired to use hearing as well as vision in independent travel. Yet, there is no published research on the auditory requirements for making effective street crossings by individuals who are visually impaired or by individuals who are both visually and hearing impaired. Thus, this article presents the frequency and intensity measurements for traffic sounds under different conditions. It then compares these measurements to audiograms to illustrate how, given certain limitations and cautions, O&M specialists can estimate a traveler's ability to make safe traffic crossmgs.

Public Transit

Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons Toward the Use of Public Transportation--print edition page(s) 446-459

R.G. Golledge, J.R. Marston, C.M. Costanzo

Abstract: This article reports on a survey of the use of buses in Santa Barbara, California, by 55 persons who are visually impaired (including those who are blind and those who have low vision). Findings on users' frustrations, potential use of technological aids for travel, and perceptions of and attitudes toward the characteristics of bus services are presented. In addition, differences in the responses of those to whom household cars were and were not available are analyzed, and suggestions for dealing with the participants' major concerns are provided.

Americans with Disabilities Act

Impact of the ADA on the Employment and Promotion of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired--print edition page(s) 460-466

P.D. Rumrill, Jr., C.M. Scheff

Abstract: Unemployment and underemployment have plagued people who are visually impaired (including those who are blind and those who have low vision) since long before the Randolph-Sheppard Act of 1936. Five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was implemented in 1992, persons who are visually impaired still have poor access to and are discriminated against in the labor market. This article examines the barriers to competitive employment for persons with visual impairments and presents an ADA-compatible strategy to help remove these barriers.

Mothers and Children

Mothers' Interpretations of the Behavior of Their Infants with Visual and Other Impairments During Interactions--print edition page(s) 467-483

S.M. Baird, P. Mayfield, P. Baker

Abstract: In this study, seven mothers of infants with visual and other impairments identified behaviors that they considered meaningful and interpreted these behaviors. The mothers identified 14 of 22 subcategories of behaviors that a previous study of mothers with sighted infants had identified. Not only was the range of behaviors they interpreted limited, but over 65 percent of their interpretations fell into only two of the 16 subcategories previously identified (attention preference and intentional behavior: desire). The implications for early intervention and future research are discussed.

Cortical Visual Impairment

Increasing a Functional Skill for an Adolescent with Cortical Visual Impairment--print edition page(s) 484-493

C. Farrenkopf, D. McGregor, S.L. Nes, A.J. Koenig

Abstract: The effectiveness of two treatment strategies--verbal prompts and a physical prompt--on the the independent drinking skills of a 17-year-old girl with cortical visual impairment was investigated using a single-subject alternating treatments design in two settings. Ten natural drinking opportunities were observed in 43 sessions in the student's school and home. It was found that the physical prompt was highly effective in promoting the target behavior, whereas verbal prompts were less effective. Independent drinking behaviors appeared to have been maintained in both settings.


Speed, Accuracy, and Comprehension of Adolescent Braille Readers in a Specialized School--print edition page(s) 494-500

S.D. Trent, M.B. Truan

Abstract: All 30 adolescent braille readers at the Tennessee School for the Blind were interviewed using a questionnaire developed by the authors, and their reading rates, accuracy, and comprehension were determined via the Gilmore Oral Reading Test. The questionnaire tapped information on onset of blindness, early reading experiences, service delivery systems, cause of blindness, and acceptance and use of braille. The most important factor related to braille reading speed was age of onset of blindness. No direct relationships were found between reading speed and comprehension or reading speed and reading for pleasure in braille.


Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 419-419

Comment--print edition page(s) 420-422

Around the World--print edition page(s) 502-508

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 508-511

Classified--print edition page(s) 511-511

News Service


Employment Update

Employment Express: An Innovative Approach to Improve Employment Outcomes--print edition page(s) 1-4

J. Maxson

Product Evaluations

Windows 95 Access for Blind or Visually Impaired Persons: An Overview--print edition page(s) 5-9

C.L. Earl, J.D. Leventhal

A Review of Two Screen Magnification Programs for Windows 95: Magnum 95 and LP-Windows--print edition page(s) 9-13

M.M. Uslan, J.C. Su

A Review of Two Speech Access Programs for Windows 95: ScreenPower and Window-Eyes--print edition page(s) 13-16

J.D. Leventhal, C.L. Earl

Around the World--print edition page(s) 16-19

Book Review

Friendships in the Dark: A Blind Woman's Story of the People and Pets Who Light Up Her World and On My Own: The Journey Continues--print edition page(s) 19-21

Reviewed by D. Kent

Calendar--print edition page(s) 21-27

News--print edition page(s) 27-38










Entire Issue (in HTML)

The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


If you would like to give us feedback, please contact us at


services iconComment on JVIB Articles

Sign in to use the new comment-on-this-article feature!

services iconAdvertising

Reach and Match: Keeping in Touch.  Empowers children with all abilities and promotes inclusion.

Low Vision Simulators Plus VSRT (Pepper) Test LUV Reading Workbook

New! Orientation and Mobility Techniques, Second Edition

Foundations of Education, Third Edition

College Bound: A Guide for Students with Visual Impairments, 2nd Edition