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The Relationship between Social Networks and the Employment of Visually Impaired College Graduates--print edition page(s) 423-432

Archie W. N. Roy, Gisela Dimigen, and Marcella Taylor

Abstract: This study examined the relationship between the employment status of visually impaired college graduates in Great Britain and their social networks, both formal and informal. The unemployed graduates had less extensive support networks to help them find jobs; used contacts in less directive ways; and socialized in more structured, group-centered ways than did the employed graduates.

Low Vision

Relative-size Magnification versus Relative-distance Magnification: Effect on the Reading Performance of Adults with Normal and Low Vision--print edition page(s) 433-446

Jan Lovie-Kitchin and Steve Whittaker

Abstract: In the study reported here, the effect of character size on the reading rates of adults with normal and low vision was measured using both relative-size magnification (by which the print size is increased) and relative-distance magnification (by which the reading distance is decreased with appropriate optical correction). With relative-distance magnification, the reading rates of the subjects with normal vision were slower at close distances, but the results were small and inconsistent. For the subjects with low vision, the magnification method did not affect their reading rates.


Assessing the Literacy of Adults Who Are Visually Impaired: Conceptual and Measurement Issues--print edition page(s) 447-453

Juliet M. V. Reid

Abstract: This article reviews the research related to the definition of literacy and the comparability of various reading media and their implications for the vocational assessment of the literacy skills of visually impaired adults. It suggests that the characteristics of literacy, together with the media and working methods used in criterion situations, are represented in assessment tasks. It also recommends the review of the content validity of literacy tests to ensure that they reflect the literacy demands of adults who are visually impaired.

Effects of Orientation on Braille Reading by People Who Are Visually Impaired: The Role of Context--print edition page(s) 454-463

Simon Ungar, Mark Blades, and Christopher Spencer

Abstract: Research by Heller suggested that speed and accuracy of reading may be seriously compromised by the inclusion of noncanonical (tilted) braille text. The study presented here extended that research by including characters other than those used by Heller and whole words. Similar results were found for Heller's original character set (B-J), but the effect of orientation was reduced with other letters and whole words. The authors conclude that braille readers, especially experienced ones, have more facility with noncanonical braille than would be inferred from Heller's results.

Adjustment to Vision Loss

The Effectiveness of Perceptual Training and Psychosocial Counseling in Adjustment to the Loss of Vision--print edition page(s) 464-482

Beverley E. Conrod and Olga Overbury

Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of perceptual training and psychological counseling (both individual and group) on adjustment to vision loss in 49 elderly persons with low vision. Overall, the interventions improved the participants' visual functioning and beliefs about the loss of vision, and follow-up interviews revealed that these improvements were maintained three to six months after the study ended.

Self-reports of Psychological Distress in Connection with Various Degrees of Visual Impairment--print edition page(s) 483-490

Jon S. Karlsson

Abstract: This article describes a study of the relationship between the degrees of visual impairment and self-reports of psychological distress by 167 Icelanders aged 18-69 and 100 aged 70-97 who were blind or had low vision. The study found that self-reports of psychological distress and perceptions of unhappiness vary significantly with the degree of visual impairment.


The Effects of Teachers' Characteristics on Placement Recommendations for Students with Visual Impairments--print edition page(s) 491-502

Young-il Kim and Anne L. Corn

Abstract: This article reports on a study of 116 certified teachers of students with visual impairments who responded to a questionnaire containing a teacher-efficacy scale, a hypothetical case report, and questions about the teachers. The study found that a teacher's current job placement was the most distinctive teacher variable affecting the teacher's placement recommendations for students. Other teacher variables that influenced these recommendations were type of community, teaching efficacy, and years of teaching experience in a specific setting.

Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of the Social Skills of Elementary-Age Students Who Are Blind--print edition page(s) 503-511

Melissa M. Buhrow, Timothy S. Hartshorne, and Sharon Bradley-Johnson

Abstract: Ratings by 23 parents and 21 regular education teachers on the Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) for elementary-age students who were blind were com- pared to ratings for the SSRS sighted norm group. No significant differences were found in the overall ratings of social skills or on the Self-Control or Responsibility subscales, but several important differences were noted on the Assertion and Cooperation subscales. Students who were blind were rated as less academically competent and higher on problem behaviors than the sighted norm group, even though stereotypical behaviors were not assessed by the SSRS. Implications for instruction are discussed.

Way finding and Cognition

Route Descriptions by Visually Impaired and Sighted Children from Memory and from Maps--print edition page(s) 512-521

Rachel Edwards, Simon Ungar, and Mark Blades

Abstract: The study reported here investigated the quality and content of visually impaired and sighted children's descriptions of two routes around their schools from memory and by using a map (print or tactile). It found that the descriptions from maps were generally poorer than those from memory, the descriptions of the visually impaired children contained more information than and were qualitatively different from those of the sighted children, and the descriptions of the younger visually impaired children were less well specified than those of the older visually impaired children and the sighted children.

Sleep Disturbances

Sleep Disturbances among Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: Survey of Dog Guide Users--print edition page(s) 522-530

Massoud K. Fouladi, Merrick J. Moseley, Helen S. Jones, and Micheal J. Tobin

Abstract: It is claimed that blindness may predispose individuals to disturbed sleep because light is an important mechanism for entraining circadian rhythms. One in five respondents in a survey described the quality of their sleep as either poor or very poor. Exercise was associated with better sleep, and depression with poorer sleep. That visual acuity did not predict the quality of sleep casts doubt on the notion that restricted visual (photic) input is a widespread cause of sleep disturbance among persons who are visually impaired. As with sighted persons, depression appears to be a highly significant risk factor for disturbed sleep in persons who are visually impaired.


Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 418-419

Comment--print edition page(s) 420-422

Research Note--print edition page(s) 531-534

Around the World--print edition page(s) 535-538

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 539-542

Classified--print edition page(s) 542-542





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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


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