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Responses to Ambiguous Stimuli by Three Toddlers Who Are Blind as a Measure of Mother-Child Communication--print edition page(s) 581-592

Susan L. Recchia

Abstract: Three toddlers who are blind were observed in their homes within the context of ongoing family activities. The observations focused on interactive communication between the children and their mothers in response to spontaneous events, both routine and novel, and to a series of novel events that were introduced systematically to the children and their mothers. The findings support the use of quasi-experimental observations of responses to ambiguous stimuli as a tool for assessing interactional strengths and weaknesses in the communication of blind toddlers and their mothers.


Best Friendships of Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Descriptive Study--print edition page(s) 593-608

L. Penny Rosenblum

Abstract: This study of 40 adolescents with visual impairments and 23 of their best friends found that adolescents with visual impairments are successful in establishing and maintaining reciprocal, intimate best friendships. The friends engaged in activities together that were typical of adolescents without disabilities. Although some participants stated that the visual impairments affected the activities the friends could do together, they also noted that these limitations did not have a strong negative impact on their friendships.

Orientation and Mobility

Guiding a Person with Blindness and Intellectual Disability in Indoor Travel with Fewer Auditory Cues--print edition page(s) 609-614

Giulio E. Lancioni, Mark F. O'Reilly, Doretta Oliva, and Sandro Bracalente

Abstract: This study assessed the possibility of guiding a person with blindness and intellectual disability during indoor travel with fewer auditory cues. To improve the chances of success, the orientation system used to present the cues was set to monitor the person's travel and to provide extra cues in case of errors. The results indicated that infrequent presentations of the cues and the provision of extra cues in case of errors maintained high levels of independent moves, albeit of increased duration.

Echolocation Reconsidered: Using Spatial Variations in the Ambient Sound Field to Guide Locomotion--print edition page(s) 615-632

Daniel H. Ashmead, Robert S. Wall, Susan B. Eaton, Kiara A. Ebinger, Mary-Maureen Snook-Hill, David A. Guth, and Xuefeng Yang

Abstract: This article presents an acoustical model and evidence from four experiments that children with visual impairments use the buildup of low-frequency sound along walls to guide locomotion. The model differs from the concept of echolocation by emphasizing sound that is ambient, rather than self-produced, and of low, rather than high, frequency.

Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections--print edition page(s) 633-646

Brian R. Gallagher and Patricia Montes de Oca

Abstract: This article presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with the case examples, distinguish when each device should be implemented to resolve specific problems.


Do Residential Schools and Local Education Agencies Collaborate to Improve the Transitions of Students with Visual Impairments?--print edition page(s) 647-655

Kim Zebehazy and Elizabeth Whitten

Abstract: It is important for residential schools for students with visual impairments to collaborate with students' local education agencies (LEAs), especially during transitions from one school to another. This study explored whether these schools are collaborating with LEAs, how the collaborative process is defined, what the benefits of such collaboration are, and what changes in the process the schools would like to see.

Adjustment to Blindness

Stress, Coping, and Adjustment of Adventitiously Blind Male Veterans with and without Diabetes Mellitus--print edition page(s) 656-665

Linda R. Upton, Beverly A. Bush, and Robert E. Taylor

Abstract: This study compared the coping strategies, psychological stressors, and adjustment of 40 elderly male veterans with diabetic retinopathy and 40 with vision loss from other causes. The presence of diabetes, the recent onset of vision loss, coping by escape-avoidance, blaming oneself, and the absence of planful problem solving were associated with difficulties in daily activities, a diminished sense of well-being, and symptoms of depression. The psychological symptoms were usually of mild severity.


Editor's Page--print edition page(s) 579-580

Research Notes--print edition page(s) 666-678

Practice Notes--print edition page(s) 678-686

Around the World--print edition page(s) 687-692

Book Reviews--print edition page(s) 692-698

Demographics Update--print edition page(s) 698-702





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The Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB)--the international, interdisciplinary journal of record on blindness and visual impairment that publishes research and practice
and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas, airing of controversies, and discussion of issues--is copyright Copyright © 2018 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.


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